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To determine perception v. actual intakes of energy-dense nutrient-poor ‘junk food’ (JF) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in young adults, using the mobile food record (mFR).
Before-and-after eating images using a 4 d mFR were assessed for standardised 600 kJ (143 kcal) servings of JF and SSB (excluding diet drinks). Participants reported their concern about the health aspects of their diet, perceptions and intentions regarding JF and SSB.
Perth, Western Australia.
Adults (n 246) aged 18–30 years.
The mean (sd) intake of JF+SSB was 3·7 (2·0) servings/d. Women thinking about drinking less SSB consumed more SSB servings/d (1·5 (1·2)) than men (0·7 (0·5); P<0·05) who were thinking about drinking less. Men not thinking about cutting down JF consumed more servings/d (4·6 (2·4)) than women (2·5 (0·7); P<0·01) who were not thinking about cutting down. Those who paid a lot of attention to the health aspects of their diet consumed less JF+SSB than those who took only a bit of notice (P<0·001), were not really thinking much about it (P<0·001) or who didn’t think at all about the health aspects of food (P<0·01).
Perceptions and attitudes regarding JF and SSB were associated with level of consumption. Those not thinking about cutting down their intake of these foods represent an important target group as they consume more than their peers. Further research is needed to identify how amenable young adults are to changing their intake, particularly given the lack of attention paid to the health aspects of their diet.
To explore factors associated with self-reported food poisoning among Western Australian adults between 1998 and 2009.
Data were pooled from four Nutrition Monitoring Surveys Series which included information on suspected food poisoning among Western Australian adults. Descriptive statistics and multinomial regression analyses were used to describe factors associated with self-reported food poisoning, food safety knowledge and behaviours.
Population of Western Australia estimated to be 2·5 million in 2009.
A representative sample of 4494 adults aged between 18 and 64 years.
There was no significant change in self-reported food poisoning over time, with about 18 % saying they had suspected food poisoning in the last 6 months. Overall, 2·1 % said they had confirmed their food-borne illness with a nurse of doctor. People less than 34 years old, those with a university degree and people who ate meals out on the day prior to the survey (one meal: OR = 1·30, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·62; two meals: OR = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·30, 3·76) were the most likely to report food poisoning. Younger people were also more likely to have their food poisoning confirmed by a health professional. Use of refrigerator thermometers and cool bags for storing food increased significantly between 2004 and 2009.
Findings support the inclusion of food safety advice in dietary recommendations. Food safety and handling education and training is recommended for food businesses, particularly the takeaway food sector, and for consumers. Because food poisoning is reported more often by younger people, food safety education should begin during childhood.
To explore why there is a lack of acceptance among Western Australian (WA) adults of the Go for 2&5®fruit and vegetable social marketing message to consume at least five servings of vegetables per day.
A series of focus group discussions comprised of homogeneous groups varied by sex and age, until saturation of themes was achieved, followed by thematic analysis.
Part of qualitative research for the Go for 2&5® fruit and vegetable social marketing campaign in WA (2009 population: 2·2 million).
WA adults stratified by sex and age groups (18–29 and 30–55 years) drawn from the second and third quartiles of socio-economic disadvantage.
Familiarity with the Go for 2&5® message was excellent. Understanding of what constitutes ‘two servings of fruit’ was excellent and regarded by participants as highly achievable. Understanding of what constitutes ‘five servings of vegetables’ was suboptimal with widespread overestimation contributing to the belief that it is unrealistic. Participants did not know how the 2&5 recommendation was formulated and believed that daily consumption of two servings of fruit and five of vegetables would confer no greater health benefit than one of fruit and three of vegetables. Participants assumed that the 2&5 recommendation was ‘aspirational’ in the sense that it was purposely exaggerated to simply encourage greater overall consumption.
A convincing case needs to be presented to WA adults as to why they should consume five servings of vegetables per day. Continuing efforts to educate incorporating what constitutes a serving will assist perceptions that the recommendation is realistic.
To assess consumer understanding of fruit and vegetable serving sizes.
The Western Australian Health Department launched the Go for 2&5® campaign to promote fruit and vegetables in March 2002. The Health & Wellbeing Surveillance System surveyed 1108 adults, aged 16 years and over, between September and November 2002 about what constituted a serving of fruit and of vegetables, their usual daily fruit and vegetables intake, and their recall of the campaign.
The study was undertaken as a part of a public health intervention – social marketing campaign in Western Australia, which had a population of 1 927 000 in 2002.
Forty-two per cent of respondents knew that the fruit serving size was one piece and only 14·5 % reported the ½ cup vegetable serving size. The mean fruit intake was 1·8 (95 % CI 1·7, 1·8) servings/d and the mean vegetable intake was 2·8 (95 % CI 2·7, 3·0) servings/d. Vegetable intake was associated with being female (P = 0·006), increasing age (P < 0·0001), awareness of the campaign (P = 0·031) and knowledge of standard serving size (P = 0·006). Fruit consumption was associated with being female (P = 0·007). Fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with educational attainment or household income.
The Go for 2&5® campaign uses a prescriptive message to promote increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Respondent’s knowledge of the standard of serving sizes for fruit and vegetables suggests there is value in separating fruit and vegetable recommendations in messages to encourage increased consumption.
The Western Australian Health Department’s Go for 2&5® campaign aimed to increase adults’ awareness of the need to eat more fruit and vegetables and encourage increased consumption of one serving over five years.
The multi-strategy fruit and vegetable social marketing campaign, conducted from 2002 to 2005, included mass media advertising (television, radio, press and point-of-sale), public relations events, publications, a website (www.gofor2and5.com), and school and community activities. Campaign development and the evaluation framework were designed using health promotion theory, and assessed values, beliefs, knowledge and behaviour. Two independent telephone surveys evaluated the campaign: the Campaign Tracking Survey interviewed 5032 adults monitoring fruit and vegetable attitudes, beliefs and consumption prior to, during and 12 months after the campaign; and the Health & Wellbeing Surveillance System surveyed 17 993 adults between 2001 and 2006, continuously monitoring consumption.
Population public health intervention–social marketing campaign in Western Australia, population of 2 010 113 in 2005.
Adults in the Perth metropolitan area.
The campaign reached the target audience, increasing awareness of the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables. There was a population net increase of 0.8 in the mean number of servings of fruit and vegetables per day over three years (0.2 for fruit (1.6 in 2002 to 1.8 in 2005) and 0.6 for vegetables (2.6 in 2002 to 3.2 in 2005), significant at P < 0.05).
Sustained, well-executed social marketing is effective in improving nutrition knowledge, attitudes and consumption behaviour. The Go for 2&5® campaign provides guidance to future nutrition promotion through social marketing.
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