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This paper explores how proactive behavior and constructive deviance relate to affective organizational commitment and turnover intention through idea championing. Based on a two-wave study (N = 310), structural equation model analyses revealed that constructive deviance had an inhibitory effect and proactive behavior a facilitatory effect on idea championing. In turn, idea championing was related to increased affective commitment and reduced turnover intention. The analyses of indirect effects further indicated that proactive behavior and constructive deviance had opposite indirect effects on affective commitment and turnover intention. This research underlines the importance of acting proactively upstream rather than deviating from the norm to promote innovation and build employee loyalty to the organization. Finally, this study also indicates that proactive and constructive deviant behaviors are conceptually different and exert opposite effects despite their similar orientation toward innovation and change.
Departing from a universal perspective on affective organizational commitment, the present article examines the situational and personal variables that act as potential moderators of the relationship between affective commitment and its antecedents and outcomes. Based on emerging evidence and theory, it is argued that the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and other job experiences and affective commitment is stronger when employees exert an influence over rewards and job experiences. This can be achieved when the organization offers opportunities for such influence or when employees’ traits help them earn expected rewards. Similarly, theory and empirical evidence suggest that the relationship between affective commitment and work outcomes is subject to moderating influences. For example, affective commitment may foster employee retention when more career opportunities are available, making one’s belongingness to the organization more attractive. Such career opportunities may result from the organization’s action or from individuals’ own proactivity to obtain them. Likewise, the relationship between affective commitment and work performance is likely stronger when supervisors’ leadership helps employees engage in those behaviors that are rewarded by the organization. Finally, we discuss avenues for future inquiry by identifying group-level and cultural variables as promising moderators that warrant attention.
This article looks at the relationship between psychological contract breach and voluntary turnover among newcomers, using supervisor trustworthiness as a mediator and negative affectivity as a moderator. Relying on data from 243 newcomers, psychological contract breach was found to be negatively related to the three dimensions of supervisor trustworthiness, i.e., ability, benevolence, and integrity. Supervisor integrity further mediated a positive relationship between psychological contract breach and voluntary turnover measured 8 months later. Psychological contract breach interacted with negative affectivity such that it was less negatively related to dimensions of supervisor trustworthiness at high levels of negative affectivity. The indirect relationship of psychological contract breach to voluntary turnover as mediated by supervisor integrity was also weaker at high levels of negative affectivity. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and practice.
Two phases of archaeological investigation were performed in the Novi Sad City Museum at Petrovaradin Fortress. In this study, we summarize the results of geo-archaeological investigations of the second period of excavation inside the Novi Sad City Museum building. The fortress is situated on a Danube terrace with the top of the bedrock at ca.123 m asl. The investigated section consists of undisturbed fine-sandy silt. The grain-size distribution of the sediments indicates clearly its alluvial reworking but shows also a general similarity with typical primary loess in the region. All analyzed proxies indicate slightly stronger weathering in the upper part of the profile. Luminescence ages suggest that the investigated sequence covers the last glacial period and the terrace presumably formed during MIS 4. Subsequently, the Danube started its incision at the start of the next warmer period (MIS 3) onward. This terrace age and elevation enable us to derive an uplift rate of the terrace of ca. 0.73 mm/a for the last 60 ka, which seems to increase towards the present. Basal loessic material, in which artifacts occur, likely in the reworked position, indicate that the area close to today's Petrovaradin Fortress was already inhabited in MIS 5.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
SiC fibers (High Nicalon S -HNS and Tyranno SA3 -Ty-SA3) submitted to heat treatments in neutral atmosphere up to 1900°C were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM observations then submitted to tensile tests up to 1800°C. The microstructural changes in both materials were determined by XRD using a modified Hall-Williamson method introducing an anisotropy parameter taking into account the high density of planar defects of the SiC-3C structure. HNS fibers exhibit significant modifications in the CDD size which drastically increases from 24 nm to 70 nm in the range 1600°C to 1800°C and in the microstrains which decrease from 0.0015 to 0.0005 between 1750°C to 1850°C. Concerning the Ty-SA3 fibers, no evolution of CDD size and microstrains has been observed. The mechanical properties of single fibers were investigated after the heat treatments showing decreases in the tensile strength reaching up to 20% for Tyranno SA3 and 50% for High Nicalon S. The Weibull moduli were also significantly affected. These results are correlated to the fiber structural and microstructural evolutions.
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