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The association of atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries is very rare. As a rule, these patients have unbalanced ventricles. However, there have been no studies describing the results of single-ventricle palliation in these children.
All children who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries were included in the study. Data were obtained from medical records.
A total of 38 patients with atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries underwent single-ventricle palliation at the study institution between 1971 and 2016. The mean follow-up was 12.4 years (median: 14.6 years, range 2–43.3 years). Most children had unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (94.7%, 36/38). Survival was 67.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.0–80.2%) at 10 years and 57.8% (95% CI: 38.0–73.4%) at 20 years. By 10 years, 58.6% (95% CI: 40.8–72.7%) had progressed to Fontan completion, while 32.5% (95% CI: 18.2–47.6%) had died. In patients achieving Fontan completion, 20-year event-free survival was 73.3% (95% CI: 34.8–91.3%), while 5.0% (95% CI: 0.4–20.5%) had undergone cardiac transplantation and 21.7% (95% CI: 3.2–50.8%) had undergone takedown of the Fontan circulation. Freedom from atrioventricular valve surgery was 57.0% (95% CI: 37.2–72.7%) at 10 and 20 years.
The association of atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and most of these children have unbalanced ventricles. Single-ventricle palliation results in 25-year overall survival of 50%. However, in patients, who had Fontan completion, survival was 75% at 25 years after Fontan operation.
The care of patients with CHD remains a challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Their health systems have not been able to achieve consistently high performance in this field. The large volume of patients, manpower constraints, inconsistencies in the level and type of background training of the teams caring for this patient population, and the inadequate quality control systems are some of the barriers to achieving excellence of care. We describe three different international projects supporting the paediatric cardiac surgical and paediatric cardiac intensive care programmes in Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean.
There is no consensus or theoretical explanation regarding the optimal location for the fenestration during the Fontan operation. We investigated the impact of the location of the fenestration on Fontan haemodynamics using a three-dimensional Fontan model in various physiological conditions.
A three-dimensional Fontan model was constructed on the basis of CT images, and a 4-mm-diameter fenestration was located between the extracardiac Fontan conduit and the right atrium at three positions: superior, middle, and inferior part of the conduit. Haemodynamics in the Fontan route were analysed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model in realistic physiological conditions, which were predicted using a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The respiratory effect of the caval flow was taken into account. The flow rate through the fenestration, the effect of lowering the central venous pressure, and wall shear stress in the Fontan circuit were evaluated under central venous pressures of 10, 15, and 20 mmHg. The pulse power index and pulsatile energy loss index were calculated as energy loss indices.
Under all central venous pressures, the middle-part fenestration demonstrated the most significant effect on enhancing the flow rate through the fenestration while lowering the central venous pressure. The middle-part fenestration produced the highest time-averaged wall shear stress, pressure pulse index, and pulsatile energy loss index.
Despite slightly elevated energy loss, the middle-part fenestration most significantly increased cardiac output and lowered central venous pressure under respiration in the Fontan circulation.
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