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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) presents with symptoms across different domains, whose neurobiology is poorly understood.
We applied voxel-based morphometry on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans of 19 female BPD patients and 50 matched female controls.
Group comparison showed bilateral orbitofrontal gray matter loss in patients, but no significant changes in the hippocampus. Voxel-wise correlation of gray matter with symptom severity scores from the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-95) showed overall negative correlation in bilateral prefrontal, right inferior temporal/fusiform and occipital cortices, and left thalamus. Significant (negative) correlations with BSL-95 subscores within the patient cohort linked autoaggression to left lateral prefrontal and insular cortices, right inferior temporal/temporal pole, and right orbital cortex; dysthymia/dysphoria to right orbitofrontal cortex; self-perception to left postcentral, bilateral inferior/middle temporal, right orbitofrontal, and occipital cortices. Schema therapy-based Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) scores of early maladaptive schemas on emotional deprivation were linked to left medial temporal lobe gray matter reductions.
Our results confirm orbitofrontal structural deficits in BPD, while providing a framework and preliminary findings on identifying structural correlates of symptom dimensions in BPD, especially with dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices.
Alterations of cortical thickness have been shown in imaging studies of
schizophrenia but it is unclear to what extent they are related to
disease phenotype (including symptom profile) or other aspects such as
genetic liability, disease onset and disease progression.
To test the hypothesis that cortical thinning would vary across different
subgroups of patients with chronic schizophrenia, delineated according to
their symptom profiles.
We compared high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging data of 87
patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia with 108 controls to detect changes in
cortical thickness across the entire brain (P<0.05,
false discovery rate-adjusted). The patient group was divided into three
subgroups, consisting of patients with predominantly negative,
disorganised or paranoid symptoms.
The negative symptoms subgroup showed the most extensive cortical
thinning, whereas thinning in the other subgroups was focused in
prefrontal and temporal cortical subregions.
Our findings support growing evidence of potential subtypes of
schizophrenia that have different brain structural deficit profiles.
We applied voxel-based morphometry to high-resolution magnetic resonance images of 99 participants with schizophrenia. Voxel-wise correlations with a score of auditory hallucination severity identified areas in the left and right superior temporal cortex (including Heschl's gyrus), left supramarginal/angular gyrus, left postcentral gyrus and left posterior cingulate cortex. This study extends previous region-of-interest studies demonstrating main effects of auditory hallucinations related to modality-specific superior temporal areas including primary and secondary auditory cortices.
Structural brain abnormalities have been described in individuals with an
at-risk mental state for psychosis. However, the neuroanatomical
underpinnings of the early and late at-risk mental state relative to
clinical outcome remain unclear.
To investigate grey matter volume abnormalities in participants in a
putatively early or late at-risk mental state relative to their
prospective clinical outcome.
Voxel-based morphometry of magnetic resonance imaging data from 20 people
with a putatively early at-risk mental state (ARMS–E group) and 26 people
with a late at-risk mental state (ARMS–L group) as well as from 15
participants with at-risk mental states with subsequent disease
transition (ARMS–T group) and 18 participants without subsequent disease
transition (ARMS–NT group) were compared with 75 healthy volunteers.
Compared with healthy controls, ARMS–L participants had grey matter
volume losses in frontotemporolimbic structures. Participants in the
ARMS–E group showed bilateral temporolimbic alterations and subtle
prefrontal abnormalities. Participants in the ARMS–T group had prefrontal
alterations relative to those in the ARMS–NT group and in the healthy
controls that overlapped with the findings in the ARMS–L group.
Brain alterations associated with the early at-risk mental state may
relate to an elevated susceptibility to psychosis, whereas alterations
underlying the late at-risk mental state may indicate a subsequent
transition to psychosis.
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