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Latin America has long been subjected to colonial development that has negated Indigenous territory. In the present conjuncture, the region is home to the largest volume of environmental conflicts in the world. These conflicts are intrinsically connected to the wider model of neo-extractivist development that has been embraced throughout the continent since the early 2000s. Indigenous communities have frequently been the victims of this model of extractive development, with their territories becoming the primary sites for the aggressive expansion of the resource frontier. This has generated new political conflicts, as Indigenous communities conversely assert claims to territory and resources. In this article, I link these conflicts to what I term the ‘coloniality of space’, whereby Indigenous territorial forms have been theoretically elided from traditional spatial imaginaries within International Relations and concretely negated through practices within the global political economy. Moving beyond the territorial trap of nation-state centrism, Indigenous forms of resistance raise important questions about the subject and actors of International Relations.
In this article, I argue that Antonio Gramsci’s concept of passive revolution makes a foundational contribution to International Relations (IR), yet has been relatively under appreciated by the broader discipline. Within the Historical Sociology of International Relations, uneven and combined development has recently been postulated as a key trans-historical law that provides a social theory of the ‘international’. Drawing from, but moving beyond these debates, I will argue that passive revolution is a key conditioning factor of capitalist modernity. I will demonstrate how the concept of passive revolution is the element that explains the connection between the universal process of uneven development and the manner in which specific combinations occur within the capitalist era as geopolitical pressures, in tandem with domestic social forces become internalised into geographically specific state forms. It therefore offers a corrective to the frequently aspatial view that is found in much of the literature in IR regarding uneven and combined development. Additionally, passive revolution provides a more politicised understanding of the present as well as an important theoretical lesson in relation to what needs to be done to affect alternative trajectories of development.
Higher vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as a protective ‘seasonal stimulus’ against influenza, and there are suggestions for associations with other aspects of respiratory health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of current vitamin D status (measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) with respiratory infections and lung function. We used cross-sectional data from 6789 participants in the nationwide 1958 British birth cohort who had measurements of 25(OH)D, lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)) and respiratory infections available from the age of 45 years. In this population, the prevalence of respiratory infections had a strong seasonal pattern in the opposite direction to the pattern for 25(OH)D concentrations. Each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 7 % lower risk of infection (95 % CI 3, 11 %) after adjustment for adiposity, lifestyle and socio-economic factors. For FEV1 and FVC, each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with 8 (95 % CI 3, 13) ml and 13 (95 % CI 7, 20) ml higher volume, respectively, after controlling for covariates. Associations of 25(OH)D with FEV1 and FVC were only slightly attenuated after further adjustment for infection and other respiratory illness. In conclusion, vitamin D status had a linear relationship with respiratory infections and lung function. Randomised controlled trials are warranted to investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory health and to establish the underlying mechanisms.
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