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UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Obesity is a major challenge for people with schizophrenia.
We assessed whether STEPWISE, a theory-based, group structured lifestyle education programme could support weight reduction in people with schizophrenia.
In this randomised controlled trial (study registration: ISRCTN19447796), we recruited adults with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or first-episode psychosis from ten mental health organisations in England. Participants were randomly allocated to the STEPWISE intervention or treatment as usual. The 12-month intervention comprised four 2.5 h weekly group sessions, followed by 2-weekly maintenance contact and group sessions at 4, 7 and 10 months. The primary outcome was weight change after 12 months. Key secondary outcomes included diet, physical activity, biomedical measures and patient-related outcome measures. Cost-effectiveness was assessed and a mixed-methods process evaluation was included.
Between 10 March 2015 and 31 March 2016, we recruited 414 people (intervention 208, usual care 206) with 341 (84.4%) participants completing the trial. At 12 months, weight reduction did not differ between groups (mean difference 0.0 kg, 95% CI −1.6 to 1.7, P = 0.963); physical activity, dietary intake and biochemical measures were unchanged. STEPWISE was well-received by participants and facilitators. The healthcare perspective incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £246 921 per quality-adjusted life-year gained.
Participants were successfully recruited and retained, indicating a strong interest in weight interventions; however, the STEPWISE intervention was neither clinically nor cost-effective. Further research is needed to determine how to manage overweight and obesity in people with schizophrenia.
Declaration of interest
R.I.G.H. received fees for lecturing, consultancy work and attendance at conferences from the following: Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Lundbeck, Novo Nordisk, Novartis, Otsuka, Sanofi, Sunovion, Takeda, MSD. M.J.D. reports personal fees from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Servier, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Inc.; and, grants from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen. K.K. has received fees for consultancy and speaker for Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Servier and Merck Sharp & Dohme. He has received grants in support of investigator and investigator-initiated trials from Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Lilly, Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim and Merck Sharp & Dohme. K.K. has received funds for research, honoraria for speaking at meetings and has served on advisory boards for Lilly, Sanofi-Aventis, Merck Sharp & Dohme and Novo Nordisk. D.Sh. is expert advisor to the NICE Centre for guidelines; board member of the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH); clinical advisor (paid consultancy basis) to National Clinical Audit of Psychosis (NCAP); views are personal and not those of NICE, NCCMH or NCAP. J.P. received personal fees for involvement in the study from a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) grant. M.E.C. and Y.D. report grants from NIHR Health Technology Assessment, during the conduct of the study; and The Leicester Diabetes Centre, an organisation (employer) jointly hosted by an NHS Hospital Trust and the University of Leicester and who is holder (through the University of Leicester) of the copyright of the STEPWISE programme and of the DESMOND suite of programmes, training and intervention fidelity framework that were used in this study. S.R. has received honorarium from Lundbeck for lecturing. F.G. reports personal fees from Otsuka and Lundbeck, personal fees and non-financial support from Sunovion, outside the submitted work; and has a family member with professional links to Lilly and GSK, including shares. F.G. is in part funded by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care Funding scheme, by the Maudsley Charity and by the Stanley Medical Research Institute and is supported by the by the Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London.
Collaborative care can support the treatment of depression in people with long-term conditions, but long-term benefits and costs are unknown.
To explore the long-term (24-month) effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care in people with mental-physical multimorbidity.
A cluster randomised trial compared collaborative care (integrated physical and mental healthcare) with usual care for depression alongside diabetes and/or coronary heart disease. Depression symptoms were measured by the symptom checklist-depression scale (SCL-D13). The economic evaluation was from the perspective of the English National Health Service.
191 participants were allocated to collaborative care and 196 to usual care. At 24 months, the mean SCL-D13 score was 0.27 (95% CI, −0.48 to −0.06) lower in the collaborative care group alongside a gain of 0.14 (95% CI, 0.06-0.21) quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The cost per QALY gained was £13 069.
In the long term, collaborative care reduces depression and is potentially cost-effective at internationally accepted willingness-to-pay thresholds.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
The term musculo-skeletal disorders describes a broad range of problems, with varying aetiologies and different natural histories, that are seen and treated in diverse treatment settings. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology affecting approximately 0.8% of the population, with women being affected three times more often than men. Psychiatric disorders are common in sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis. Complex cases may require more detailed assessment by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was initially proposed as a descriptive label for a clinical syndrome characterized by widespread pain and increased sensitivity to pressure at various anatomical locations known as tender points. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common of all joint diseases. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) and associated disability is a major health and socio-economic problem. Psychological treatments are effective in reducing psychological distress, and improving coping in subjects with a wide range of musculo-skeletal disorders.
Depressive disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder among patients attending primary care worldwide. This chapter indicates the ways in which different definitions and different modes of measurement used in previous research can affect the prevalence of depression. It examines the prevalence of depression in different groups and reviews the few studies that have examined the incidence of depression in the medically ill. In published studies, the prevalence of depression in the medically ill ranges between 15% and 61%. A self-administered questionnaire is required to screen a large population of physically ill patients and may be used as the first stage of a two-phase survey, which includes research interviews to determine the actual cases of depressive disorder. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate a close association between depressive disorders and physical illness in population-based studies. Finally, the chapter explains the effect of depression in terms of health-related quality of life and healthcare costs.
The extent to which depression impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the physically ill has not been clearly established.
To quantify the adverse influence of depression and anxiety assessed at the time of first myocardial infarction and 6 months later, on the physical aspect of HRQoL 12 months after the infarction.
In all, 260 in-patients, admitted following first myocardial infarction, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study SF–36 assessment before discharge and at 6- and 12-month follow-up.
Depression and anxiety 6 months after myocardial infarction predicted subsequent impairment in the physical aspects of HRQoL (attributable adjusted R2=9%, P<0.0005). These negative effects of depression and anxiety on outcome were mediated by feelings of fatigue. Depression and anxiety present before myocardial infarction did not predict HRQoL 12 months after myocardial infarction.
Detection and treatment of depression and anxiety following myocardial infarction improve the patient's health-related quality of life.
Self-help interventions in mental health are increasingly seen as one way of overcoming problems with access to psychological therapy, but there is insufficient evidence of effectiveness in routine care settings. This paper investigates the process and outcome of a non-guided self-help manual for anxiety and depression compared to a waiting list control in a primary care setting. Patients with mild to moderate mental health problems were recruited from routine GP referrals to the local Primary Care Mental Health Team. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to either non-guided self-help or a waiting list control group. Patients completed outcome measures at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Intention to treat analysis found no significant differences between the two groups on measures of anxiety or depression at 12 weeks. Between 40% to 50% of patients in both groups were no longer clinical cases at the end of the trial. However, there was a high level of satisfaction with the self-help manual. Within the limitations of the small sample size, the study does not support the hypothesis that non-guided self-help is superior to waiting list control in the treatment of anxiety and/or depression in primary care.
As the arsenal of antidepressant drugs increases with time so, concurrently, does the list of caveats that must be considered when using these agents in patients with other physical illnesses and using other medications. MacHale's (2002, this issue) overview of the management of depression in physical illness serves as a crucial update for clinicians providing psychiatric services for patients with comorbid physical illnesses. Appropriate emphasis is placed on the usefulness of non-pharmacological treatments in such patients, although the reality of modern practice is that drug treatment is most often considered first-line owing to limited psychological service resources.
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