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We report three brothers born to consanguineous parents of Syrian descent, with a homozygous novel c.324G>A (p.W108*) mutation in PTRH2 that encodes peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2, causing infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD). We describe the core clinical features of postnatal microcephaly, motor and language delay with regression, ataxia, and hearing loss. Additional features include epileptic seizures, pancreatic insufficiency, and peripheral neuropathy. Clinical phenotyping enabled a targeted approach to the investigation and identification of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in PTRH2, c.324G>A (p.W108*). We compare our patients with those recently described and review the current literature for IMNEPD.
The onset of progressive cerebellar ataxia in early childhood is considered a key feature of ataxiatelangiectasia (A-T), accompanied by ocular apraxia, telangiectasias, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation.
We describe the clinical features and course of three Mennonite children who were diagnosed with A-T following the completion of therapy for lymphoid malignancies.
Prior to cancer therapy, all had non-progressive atypical neurological abnormalities, with onset by age 30 months, including dysarthria, dyskinesia, hypotonia and/or dystonia, without telangiectasias. Cerebellar ataxia was noted in only one of the children and was mild until his death at age eight years. None had severe infections. All three children were “cured” of their lymphoid malignancies, but experienced severe adverse effects from the treatments administered. The two children who received cranial irradiation developed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the brain, an association not previously described, with fatal outcomes.
The range of neurological presentations of A-T is broad. Ataxia and telangiectasias may be minimal or absent and the course seemingly non-progressive. The diagnosis of A-T should be considered in all children with neuromotor dysfunction or peripheral neuropathy, particularly those who develop lymphoid malignancies. The consequences of missing the diagnosis may be dire. Radiation therapy and radiomimetic drugs should be avoided in individuals with A-T.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of lysosomal metabolism. The clinical phenotypic spectrum encompasses overlapping features of variable severity and is suggestive of individual single sulfatase deficiencies (i.e., metachromatic leukodystrophy, mucopolysaccharidosis, and X-linked ichthyosis).
We describe a 3-year-old male with severe hypotonia, developmental regression and progressive neurodegeneration, coarse facial features, nystagmus (from ocular albinism), and dysmyelinating motor sensory neuropathy. Ethics approval was obtained from the Western University Ontario.
Extensive investigative work-up identified deficiencies of multiple sulfatases: heparan sulfate sulfamidase: 6.5 nmoles/mg/protein/17 hour (reference 25.0-75.0), iduronate-2-sulfate sulfatase: 9 nmol/mg/protein/4 hour (reference 31-110), and arylsulfatase A: 3.8 nmoles/hr/mg protein (reference 22-50). The identification of compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the SUMF1 gene c.836 C>T (p.A279V) and c.1045C>T (p.R349W) confirmed the diagnosis of MSD.
The complex clinical manifestations of MSD and the unrelated coexistence of ocular albinism as in our case can delay diagnosis. Genetic counselling should be provided to all affected families.
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