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Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs)-doped polystyrene (PS) microspheres with high luminescence were prepared using a self-assembly approach. Hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS QDs were first carboxylized by ligand exchange using mercaptocarboxylic acid. PS microspheres were separately encapsulated with polyethyleneimine via electrostatic interactions and then adsorbed with the carboxyl QDs to form QDs-doped microspheres. We then characterized the combinations using optical, electrical, and mechanical approaches and obtained the following findings: (i) microspheres can be fully coated by QD nanoparticles with a coverage rate of 1.0 pmole/cm2, in which QDs were evenly distributed on the surfaces; (ii) the anchored QDs exhibited similar optical property as they performed in isolated suspension; and (iii) the fluorescence of QDs-doped microspheres remained intact after stressed by ultrasound-induced cavitation, demonstrating the robustness of interactions between QDs and microspheres. The self-assembly approach developed in this study offered a facile and controllable strategy for preparation of QDs-encoded microparticles with high luminescence and stability.
This study develops a novel image-guided robotic system that can be used to position biopsy needles or drill fixation holes. After the patient has received a CT-scan, the registration of the image, localizer (patient), and robot frames will be done by finding the optimum transformation matrix among the image and localizer coordinates of the fiducial markers and the DRFs mounted on the robot. Then, surgical paths planned on the computer displayed images can be transformed to the robot frame, and the robot is thus capable to move surgical tools to the preplanned location. The positioning error is about 2 mm and the orientation error is about 0.23°.
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