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The effects of non-invasive, non-convulsive electrical neuromodulation (NINCEN) on depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance are inconsistent in different studies. Previous meta-analyses on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and cerebral electrotherapy stimulation (CES) suggested that these methods are effective on depression. However, not all types of NINECN were included; results on anxiety and sleep disturbance were lacking and the influence of different populations and treatment parameters was not completely analyzed. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, PsycArticles and CINAHL before March 2021 and included published randomized clinical trials of all types of NINCEN for symptoms of depression, anxiety and sleep in clinical and non-clinical populations. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. The main outcome was change in the severity of depressive symptoms after NINCEN treatment. A total of 58 studies on NINCEN were included in the meta-analysis. Active tDCS showed a significant effect on depressive symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.544), anxiety (Hedges' g = 0.667) and response rate (odds ratio = 1.9594) compared to sham control. CES also had a significant effect on depression (Hedges' g = 0.654) and anxiety (Hedges' g = 0.711). For all types of NINCEN, active stimulation was significantly effective on depression, anxiety, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total sleep time, etc. Our results showed that tDCS has significant effects on both depression and anxiety and that these effects are robust for different populations and treatment parameters. The rational expectation of the tDCS effect is ‘response’ rather than ‘remission’. CES also is effective for depression and anxiety, especially in patients with disorders of low severity.
Schwannoma arising from the tympanic membrane is a rare neoplasm. This report describes an external ear canal mass obscuring the tympanic membrane. A transcanal approach identified a tumour adhered to the tympanic membrane. The tumour was excised without myringoplasty. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Clinical examination revealed no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of one year. The possible origins of schwannoma of the tympanic membrane and lesion management are also discussed.
Sc-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on Corning 1737 glasses by using RF magnetron co-sputtering system with Sc2O3 and ZnO targets. Different sputtering powers of Sc2O3 target and post annealing of 550°C for 2 hr were investigated to understand the effect on microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Sc-doped ZnO thin films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the Sc-doped films have (002) preferred orientation. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) show that the Sc-doped ZnO thin films have columnar structure before and after annealing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface measurement also shows that the surface roughness of the films was smoother when the Sc2O3 sputtering power increased. The optical transmission of as deposited Sc-doped films in the visible region all exceeded 80%, and increased about 3% after samples annealed. Electrical resistivity measurement reveals that the as-deposited Sc-doped ZnO thin films had lowest resistivity of 0.97 Ω cm when the Sc2O3 sputtering power was 125W. After annealing the lowest resistivity decreased to 9.85 × 10−2 Ω cm in which 200W of the Sc2O3 sputtering power was applied.
Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare and invasive malignant tumour with rapid distant metastasis and dismal prognosis. Clinically, perineural invasion of the salivary duct carcinoma is commonly noted. Here, we present a case of salivary duct carcinoma of submandibular gland origin with perineural invasion of the trigeminal nerve proximal to the intracranium, that was well demonstrated by a magnetic resonance image (MRI) and was consistent with the clinical presentation. This case received radical resection and radiotherapy with inclusion of the skull base within the field. There was no tumour recurrence and distant metastasis 24 months post-operatively.
Electrocautery excision (hot dissection) and scissor/snare dissection (cold dissection) are two popular methods used in tonsillectomy. The former causes relatively more post-operative pain but takes less time to perform and is associated with less intra-operative and immediate post-operative bleeding than the latter. To explore post-operative pain control in patients undergoing electrodissection tonsillectomy, a prospective, randomized, one-blind study was designed involving local injections of steroid into the pillar and tonsil bed. The pain levels among the topical injection, deltoid muscle injection and the control group were scored and analyzed. Local steroid injection was found to significantly abate the post-tonsillectomy pain.
Research on the eustachian tube (ET) and related paratubal structures was carried out by serial section of the temporal bone-ET specimens. In the cadaveric studies, the mid-cartilaginous section of the ET presented a curved slit-like lumen. It is believed that this section functions principally as a valve mechanism and acts like an active sphincter of the ET. This report illustrates the dynamic movement of the valve section in a living ET which can be observed by using a superfine fibreoptic videomicroendoscope. Disorders of the open-close mechanism of the valve section in a diseased ET due to different aetiologies are also discussed. This study indicated that transtympanic ET microendoscopy had considerable potential for exploring fascinating new aspects of the physiology, pathophysiology and anatomy dynamics of the ET.
Successful restoration of phonation, as well as swallowing in laryngopharyngeal surgery for patients with advanced pyriform carcinoma still remains a major challenge. In a five-year period, near-total laryngectomy perations were performed on 21 patients with laryngopharyngeal carcinoma. This report particularly emphasizes the value of near-total laryngopharyngectomy with a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for four extensive hypopharyngeal carcinoma cases (three of which were of pyriform origin). All four patients regained intelligible shunt speech and smooth swallowing. The follow-up period ranged from 19 to 44 months. They ave had no recurrence of disease since surgery.
The authors suggest that an advanced pyriform carcinoma case, with a normal contralateral hemilarynx and pyriform sinus, is a candidate for a near-total excision of the laryngopharynx.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of external ear canal schwannoma in the English literature. Several detailed clinical and pathological features were demonstrated. We suggest that if a tender, encapsulated mass is found in the external ear canal, the diagnosis of schwannoma should be taken into consideration.
The authors describe a patient with a cervical cystic mass present for 14 years which proved to be a cystic metastasis from apapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. This is probably the first case report of a long-term lateral cervical cyst caused by an occult thyroid carcinoma.
The experimental results for different structures of contact image sensor are reported in this paper, which includes Schottky barrier, p-i junction, p-l-n junction, and MIS structures. The J-V characteristics of p-i-n a-Si: H contact image sensor under dark and illuminated conditions have been simulated by solving the Poisson's equation and the continuity equations, and the results are correlated with the experiments. The dependence of the dark and photo currents on the parameters such as the density of states in the gap, intrinsic layer width, dopant concentrations of p* layer and n+ layer are discussed.
The authors describe an unusual case of a primary chondroid chordoma arising from the base of petrous temporal bone. The patient, a young male, presented with a left sided jugular foramen syndrome. The CT findings of a tumour arising from the base of the left petrous temporal bone were confirmed at infratemporal exploration. The clinical and histopathological and immunohistochemical differences between classical (typical) chordoma and its chondroid variant are highlighted. The rarity of primary chordomas at this site is stressed.
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