To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
During the first postnatal week in rodents, cholinergic retinal waves initiate in starburst amacrine cells (SACs), propagating to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and visual centers, essential for visual circuit refinement. By modulating exocytosis in SACs, dynamic changes in the protein kinase A (PKA) activity can regulate the spatiotemporal patterns of cholinergic waves. Previously, cysteine string protein-α (CSPα) is found to interact with the core exocytotic machinery by PKA-mediated phosphorylation at serine 10 (S10). However, whether PKA-mediated CSPα phosphorylation may regulate cholinergic waves via SACs remains unknown. Here, we examined how CSPα phosphorylation in SACs regulates cholinergic waves. First, we identified that CSPα1 is the major isoform in developing rat SACs and the inner plexiform layer during the first postnatal week. Using SAC-specific expression, we found that the CSPα1-PKA-phosphodeficient mutant (CSP-S10A) decreased wave frequency, but did not alter the wave spatial correlation compared to control, wild-type CSPα1 (CSP-WT), or two PKA-phosphomimetic mutants (CSP-S10D and CSP-S10E). These suggest that CSPα-S10 phosphodeficiency in SACs dampens the frequency of cholinergic waves. Moreover, the level of phospho-PKA substrates was significantly reduced in SACs overexpressing CSP-S10A compared to control or CSP-WT, suggesting that the dampened wave frequency is correlated with the decreased PKA activity. Further, compared to control or CSP-WT, CSP-S10A in SACs reduced the periodicity of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in neighboring RGCs, suggesting that these RGCs received the weakened synaptic inputs from SACs overexpressing CSP-S10A. Finally, CSP-S10A in SACs decreased the PSC amplitude and the slope to peak PSC compared to control or CSP-WT, suggesting that CSPα-S10 phosphodeficiency may dampen the speed of the SAC-RGC transmission. Thus, via PKA-mediated phosphorylation, CSPα in SACs may facilitate the SAC-RGC transmission, contributing to the robust frequency of cholinergic waves.
We studied the polarization-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of a-plane GaN /AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on r-plane sapphire substrate with the various well width from 1.5 to 7.33 nm. To clarify the reasons of light emission polarization properties, we applied the 6×6 k‧p model to simulate the E-k dispersion relation and the wave functions to obtain the polarization optical transitions. According to the experimental result, the PL emission peak position exhibits a red-shifted with increasing well width, due to the reduction of the quantum confinement effect. The polarization ratio of a-plane GaN/AlGaN MQWs increased from 0.236 to 0.274 with increasing the quantum well width. This phenomenon is believed to be that y-polarized light emission gradually dominates the PL spectrum and thus enhances the polarization ratio.
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a technique of material processing and surface modification, using controllable negative high voltage pulsed bias to attract the ion generated from the plasma. The method using PIII treatment quickly improves the performance of solar cell made of crystalline silicon, including monocrystalline, multicrystalline and polycrystalline silicon. Hydrogen ions are attracted and quickly implanted into solar cell under a predetermined negative pulse voltage, thus, the passivation of the crystal defects of the solar cell can be realized in a short period. Meanwhile, the properties of the antireflection layer can not be damaged as the proper operating conditions are used. Consequently, the series resistance can be significantly reduced and the filling factor increases as a result. Both the short-circuit and the open-circuit voltage can be increased. The efficiency can be enhanced.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.