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Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16–27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7–952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.
Using nanoindentation, this study develops the criteria to evaluate the creep performance of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface of microelectronic solder joints. Regardless of crystal structure and melting point, the creep stress exponent (X), one of the parameters determining creep resistance, is in good agreement with tendencies of the work-hardening exponent (n) and also the ratio of yield stress (Y) to Young's modulus (E), which reveals the ability against plastic deformation.
The effect of minor transition metal (TM) additives of Ni, Co, or Zn on the interfacial reactions of the solder joints between Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solder and the Cu/Ni(P)/Au substrate was investigated, especially subsequent to multi-reflowing. (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formed at the interface of all the joints except that of SAC–Ni, of which the interfacial compound was (Ni,Cu)6Sn5. The interfacial compounds of the SAC–Co and SAC–Zn contained a small amount of alloying elements of less than 3 at.%. Two P-rich layers, Ni3P and Ni–Sn–P emerged at the interface of the SAC joints. Nanoindentation analysis indicates that the hardness and Young’s modulus of these two phases were slightly higher than those of the Ni(P) substrate, which were in turn much greater than those of the Cu–Ni–Sn compounds. Worthy of notice is that with TM additions, the Ni–Sn–P phase between Ni3P and interfacial compounds was absent even after 10 reflows. For the SAC–Co joints, the growth of Ni-containing intermetallic compounds within the solder gave rise to the excess Ni dissolution, which caused a discrete Ni3P layer and over-consumed Ni(P) substrate underneath the grooves in-between (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 scallop grains at the interface. This phenomenon is presented for the first time, and the mechanism is proposed in this study.
Sc-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on Corning 1737 glasses by using RF magnetron co-sputtering system with Sc2O3 and ZnO targets. Different sputtering powers of Sc2O3 target and post annealing of 550°C for 2 hr were investigated to understand the effect on microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Sc-doped ZnO thin films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the Sc-doped films have (002) preferred orientation. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) show that the Sc-doped ZnO thin films have columnar structure before and after annealing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface measurement also shows that the surface roughness of the films was smoother when the Sc2O3 sputtering power increased. The optical transmission of as deposited Sc-doped films in the visible region all exceeded 80%, and increased about 3% after samples annealed. Electrical resistivity measurement reveals that the as-deposited Sc-doped ZnO thin films had lowest resistivity of 0.97 Ω cm when the Sc2O3 sputtering power was 125W. After annealing the lowest resistivity decreased to 9.85 × 10−2 Ω cm in which 200W of the Sc2O3 sputtering power was applied.
Characterization of the TiN coatings oxidized in air at temperatures at 600 and 700°C for 30 min was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). TiN thin films with a Ti interlayer were prepared by hollow cathode discharge ion plating on AISI 304 stainless steel. Both XRD and TEM results show that the TiN coatings and Ti interlayer have columnar structure with (111) and (0002) preferred orientations, respectively. AFM results show the existence of pinholes on the surface of specimens due to electropolishing process of the steel substrate, and the surface roughness (Ra) changes from 3.5 nm for the as-deposited specimen to 11.6 nm after oxidation at 700°. After oxidation, the TiO2 oxide layer formed on the specimen surface was porous and retained the columnar structure as the original TiN coating. The microstructure of the Ti interlayer gradually changed from columnar to polycrystalline structure due to grain growth. The Auger elemental depth profiling indicated that interdiffusion of the Ti interlayer with steel substrate had occurred during the oxidation process.
Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare and invasive malignant tumour with rapid distant metastasis and dismal prognosis. Clinically, perineural invasion of the salivary duct carcinoma is commonly noted. Here, we present a case of salivary duct carcinoma of submandibular gland origin with perineural invasion of the trigeminal nerve proximal to the intracranium, that was well demonstrated by a magnetic resonance image (MRI) and was consistent with the clinical presentation. This case received radical resection and radiotherapy with inclusion of the skull base within the field. There was no tumour recurrence and distant metastasis 24 months post-operatively.
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