To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper, effects of discharge parameters and modulation frequency on the signal of laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ion velocity distribution functions are investigated in the LIF Test Source. A maximum modulation frequency is found for each given set of parameters, beyond which the signal gradually declines. Meanwhile, this maximum modulation frequency occurred consistently at ~1/10 of the theoretical frequency limit and photon counts received by a photomultiplier tube, which indicates that as modulation frequency and the associated per-pulse-excitation-event count decrease, the transition from the macroscopic statistical signal to the microscopic probabilistic signal is a gradual process.
Video materials require learners to manage concurrent verbal and pictorial processing. To facilitate second language (L2) learners’ video comprehension, the amount of presented information should thus be compatible with human beings’ finite cognitive capacity. In light of this, the current study explored whether a reduction in multimodal comprehension scaffolding would lead to better L2 comprehension gain when viewing captioned videos and, if so, which type of reduction (verbal vs. nonverbal) is more beneficial. A total of 62 L2 learners of English were randomly assigned to one of the following viewing conditions: (1) full captions + animation, (2) full captions + static key frames, (3) partial captions + animation, and (4) partial captions + static key frames. They then completed a comprehension test and cognitive load questionnaire. The results showed that while viewing the video with reduced nonverbal visual information (static key frames), the participants had well-rounded performance in all aspects of comprehension. However, their local comprehension (extraction of details) was particularly enhanced after viewing a key-framed video with full captions. Notably, this gain in local comprehension was not as manifest after viewing animated video content with full captions. The qualitative data also revealed that although animation may provide a perceptually stimulating viewing experience, its transient feature most likely taxed the participants’ attention, thus impacting their comprehension outcomes. These findings underscore the benefit of a reduction in nonverbal input and the interplay between verbal and nonverbal input. The findings are discussed in relation to the use of verbal and nonverbal input for different pedagogical purposes.
Evaluating the association of water intake and hydration status with nephrolithiasis risk at the population level.
It is a cross-sectional study in which daily total plain water intake and total fluid intake were estimated together with blood osmolality, urine creatinine, urine osmolality, urine flow rate (UFR), free water clearance (FWC) and urine/blood osmolality ratio (Uosm:Bosm). The associations of fluid intake and hydration markers with nephrolithiasis were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.
General US population.
A total of 8195 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009–2012 cycles.
The population medians (interquartile ranges, IQR) for daily total plain water intake and total fluid intake were 807 (336–1481) and 2761 (2107–3577) ml/d, respectively. The adjusted OR (95 % CI) of nephrolithiasis for each IQR increase in total plain water intake and total fluid intake were 0·92 (95 % CI 0·79, 1·06) and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), respectively. The corresponding OR of nephrolithiasis for UFR, blood osmolality, Uosm:Bosm and urine creatinine were 0·87 (95 % CI 0·76, 0·99), 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32), 1·38 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·63) and 1·27 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·45), respectively. A linear protective relationship of fluid intake, UFR and FWC with nephrolithiasis risk was observed. Similarly, positive dose–response associations of nephrolithiasis risk with markers of insufficient hydration were identified. Encouraging a daily water intake of >2500 ml/d and maintaining a urine output of 2 l/d was associated with a lower prevalence of nephrolithiasis.
This study verified the beneficial role of general water intake recommendations in nephrolithiasis prevention in the general US population.
Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
At present, the frontier-based exploration has been one of the mainstream methods in autonomous robot exploration. Among the frontier-based algorithms, the method of searching frontiers based on rapidly exploring random trees consumes less computing resources with higher efficiency and performs well in full-perceptual scenarios. However, in the partially perceptual cases, namely when the environmental structure is beyond the perception range of robot sensors, the robot often lingers in a restricted area, and the exploration efficiency is reduced. In this article, we propose a decision-making method for robot exploration by integrating the estimated path information gain and the frontier information. The proposed method includes the topological structure information of the environment on the path to the candidate frontier in the frontier selection process, guiding the robot to select a frontier with rich environmental information to reduce perceptual uncertainty. Experiments are carried out in different environments with the state-of-the-art RRT-exploration method as a reference. Experimental results show that with the proposed strategy, the efficiency of robot exploration has been improved obviously.
Support vector machines (SVMs) based on brain-wise functional connectivity (FC) have been widely adopted for single-subject prediction of patients with schizophrenia, but most of them had small sample size. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of SVMs based on a large single-site dataset and investigate the effects of demographic homogeneity and training sample size on classification accuracy.
The resting functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) dataset comprised 220 patients with schizophrenia and 220 healthy controls. Brain-wise FCs was calculated for each participant and linear SVMs were developed for automatic classification of patients and controls. First, we evaluated the SVMs based on all participants and homogeneous subsamples of men, women, younger (18–30 years), and older (31–50 years) participants by 10-fold nested cross-validation. Then, we hold out a fixed test set of 40 participants (20 patients and 20 controls) and evaluated the SVMs based on incremental training sample sizes (N = 40, 80, …, 400).
We found that the SVMs based on all participants had accuracy of 85.05%. The SVMs based on male, female, young, and older participants yielded accuracy of 84.66, 81.56, 80.50, and 86.13%, respectively. Although the SVMs based on older subsamples had better performance than those based on all participants, they generalized poorly to younger participants (77.24%). For incremental training sizes, the classification accuracy increased stepwise from 72.6 to 83.3%, with >80% accuracy achieved with sample size >240.
The findings indicate that SVMs based on a large dataset yield high classification accuracy and establish models using a large sample size with heterogeneous properties are recommended for single subject prediction of schizophrenia.
The present study investigated the effect of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (BSF) on haemolymph biochemical indicators, muscle metabolites as well as the lipid and glucose metabolism of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four diets were formulated in which the control diet contained 25 % of fishmeal (FM) and 10 % (BSF10), 20 % (BSF20), and 30 % (BSF30) of FM protein were replaced with BSF. Four hundred and eighty shrimp (0·88 ± 0·00 g) were distributed to four groups of three replicates and fed for 7 weeks. Results showed that growth performance of shrimp fed BSF30 significantly decreased compared with those fed FM, but there was no significant difference in survival among groups. The whole shrimp crude lipid content, haemolymph TAG and total cholesterol were decreased with the increasing BSF inclusion. The results of metabolomics showed that the metabolite patterns of shrimp fed different diets were altered, with significant changes in metabolites related to lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism as well as TCA cycle. The mRNA expressions of hk, pfk, pk, pepck, ampk, mcd, cpt-1 and scd1 in hepatopancreas were downregulated in shrimp fed BSF30, but mRNA expression of acc1 was upregulated. Unlike BSF30, the mRNA expressions of fas, cpt-1, fbp and 6pgd in hepatopancreas were upregulated in shrimp fed BSF20. This study indicates that BSF20 diet promoted lipid synthesis and lipolysis, while BSF30 diet weakened β-oxidation and glycolysis as well as affected the unsaturated fatty acids synthesis, which may affect the growth performance and body composition of shrimp.
Cognitive impairment is common in late-life depression, which may increase Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) has worse cognition and increases the characteristic AD neuropathology. Furthermore, we carried out a comparison between treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and non-TRD. We hypothesized that patients with late-life depression and TRD may have increased β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in brain regions responsible for global cognition.
We recruited 81 subjects, including 54 MDD patients (27 TRD and 27 non-TRD) and 27 matched healthy controls (HCs). Neurocognitive tasks were examined, including Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment to detect global cognitive functions. PET with Pittsburgh compound-B and fluorodeoxyglucose were used to capture brain Aβ pathology and glucose use, respectively, in some patients.
MDD patients performed worse in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.003) and had more Aβ deposits than HCs across the brain (family-wise error-corrected p < 0.001), with the most significant finding in the left middle frontal gyrus. Significant negative correlations between global cognition and prefrontal Aβ deposits existed in MDD patients, whereas positive correlations were noted in HCs. TRD patients had significantly more deposits in the left-sided brain regions (corrected p < 0.001). The findings were not explained by APOE genotypes. No between-group fluorodeoxyglucose difference was detected.
Late-life depression, particularly TRD, had increased brain Aβ deposits and showed vulnerability to Aβ deposits. A detrimental role of Aβ deposits in global cognition in patients with late-onset or non-late-onset MDD supported the theory that late-life MDD could be a risk factor for AD.
Few studies have explored the complex relationship of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with cognitive function in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.
In total, 26, 35, and 29 adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, respectively, and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the current study. Cytokines, namely interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were assessed. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the working memory task were administered to assess cognitive function.
Using generalized linear models with adjustment for demographic data and clinical symptoms, patients with bipolar disorder were found to exhibit the highest levels of CRP (P = .023), IL-6 (P = .022), and TNF-α (P = .011), and had the lowest IL-2 levels (P = .034) among the four groups. According to the results of the WCST and working memory task, adolescents with schizophrenia exhibited the lowest performance in cognitive function. In addition, among the assessed cytokines, only CRP levels (P = .027) were negatively associated with WCST scores.
Dysregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and impaired cognitive functioning were observed in first-episode adolescent-onset schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. The altered cytokine profiles may play important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Honeybees cannot synthesize arachidonic acid (ARA) themselves, only obtain it from food. Most pollen is deficient or contains a small amount of ARA. The necessity of supplementary ARA in bees’ diet has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ARA levels on the growth and immunity of Apis mellifera ligustica. A total of 25 honeybee colonies were randomly assigned to five dietary groups which were fed basic diets supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of ARA. The diet with 4% ARA improved the body weight of newly emerged worker bees compared with the control group. Supplement of ARA in honeybee diets changed the fatty acid composition of honeybee body. SFA and MUFA contents of bees’ body declined, and PUFA content rised in the ARA group. Compared with the control group, the supplement of ARA in honeybee diets increased the contents of ARA, C22:6n-3 (DHA) and C18:3n-6 in bees’ body significantly, but decreased the contents of C16:1 and C18:3n-3. The diet supplied with 4% ARA reduced the mortality rate of honeybee infected with Escherichia coli. The activity of immune enzymes (phenoloxidase, antitrypsin, and lysozyme) and the mRNA expression levels of immune genes (defensin-2, toll, myd88, and dorsal) were improved by ARA diets to varying degrees depending on the ARA levels, especially 4% ARA. These results suggested that dietary ARA could improve the growth, survival, and immune functions of honeybees. Supplement of ARA in bees’ diet would be valuable for the fitness of honeybees.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, with its impact on our way of life, is affecting our experiences and mental health. Notably, individuals with mental disorders have been reported to have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Personality traits could represent an important determinant of preventative health behaviour and, therefore, the risk of contracting the virus.
We examined overlapping genetic underpinnings between major psychiatric disorders, personality traits and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to explore the genetic correlations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility with psychiatric disorders and personality traits based on data from the largest available respective genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In two cohorts (the PsyCourse (n = 1346) and the HeiDE (n = 3266) study), polygenic risk scores were used to analyse if a genetic association between, psychiatric disorders, personality traits and COVID-19 susceptibility exists in individual-level data.
We observed no significant genetic correlations of COVID-19 susceptibility with psychiatric disorders. For personality traits, there was a significant genetic correlation for COVID-19 susceptibility with extraversion (P = 1.47 × 10−5; genetic correlation 0.284). Yet, this was not reflected in individual-level data from the PsyCourse and HeiDE studies.
We identified no significant correlation between genetic risk factors for severe psychiatric disorders and genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility. Among the personality traits, extraversion showed evidence for a positive genetic association with COVID-19 susceptibility, in one but not in another setting. Overall, these findings highlight a complex contribution of genetic and non-genetic components in the interaction between COVID-19 susceptibility and personality traits or mental disorders.
Condensation inside marine containers occurs during voyages owing to weather changes. In this study, we define the condensation probability along one of the major routes for container ships between Asia and Europe. First, the inside and outside air conditions were measured on land in Japan, and a correlation analysis was conducted to derive their relationship. Second, onboard measurements were conducted for 20,000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) ships to determine the variation in outside air conditions. Complicated patterns of weather change were observed with changes in latitude, sea area, and season. Third, condensation probability was estimated based on a multi-regression analysis with land and onboard measured data. The maximum condensation probability in westbound or eastbound voyages in winter was found to be approximately 50%. The condensation probability estimation method established in this study can contribute to the quantification of cargo damage risks for the planning of marine container transportation voyages.
Despite the fact that social deficits among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are lifelong and impact many aspects of personal functioning, evidence-based programs for social skills training were not available until recently. The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS®) has been shown to effectively improve social skills for adolescents on the spectrum across different social cultures. However, the effectiveness for young adults beyond North America has yet to be examined. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the PEERS intervention in Taiwanese young adults with ASD, and examine its durability and clinical correlates.
We recruited 82 cognitively-able young adults with ASD, randomized to the PEERS treatment or treatment-as-usual.
Following treatment, significant improvement was found in aspects of social deficits, autism severity, social interaction anxiety, empathy, and social skills knowledge either by self-report or coach-report. Additionally, communicative behaviors rated by observers improved throughout the sessions, showing a trend toward more appropriate eye contact, gestures, facial expression during conversation, and appropriate maintenance of conversation and reciprocity. Most effects maintained at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The improvement of social deficits was positively correlated with baseline severity, while gains in social skills knowledge were positively correlated with IQ. The improvement of social deficits, autism severity, and empathy were positively correlated with each other.
Overall, the PEERS intervention appears to effectively improve social functioning in Taiwanese young adults with ASD. Improvement of social response and knowledge may be predicted by baseline severity and intelligence respectively.
Due to lack of data on the epidemiology, cardiac, and neurological complications among Ontario visible minorities (Chinese and South Asians) affected by coronavirus disease (COVID-19), this population-based retrospective study was undertaken to study them systematically.
From January 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020 using the last name algorithm to identify Ontario Chinese and South Asians who were tested positive by PCR for COVID-19, their demographics, cardiac, and neurological complications including hospitalization and emergency visit rates were analyzed compared to the general population.
Chinese (N = 1,186) with COVID-19 were found to be older (mean age 50.7 years) compared to the general population (N = 42,547) (mean age 47.6 years) (p < 0.001), while South Asians (N = 3,459) were younger (age of 42.1 years) (p < 0.001). The 30-day crude rate for cardiac complications among Chinese was 169/10,000 (p = 0.069), while for South Asians, it was 64/10,000 (p = 0.008) and, for the general population, it was 112/10,000. For neurological complications, the 30-day crude rate for Chinese was 160/10,000 (p < 0.001); South Asians was 40/10,000 (p = 0.526), and general population was 48/10,000. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was significantly higher for Chinese at 8.1% vs 5.0% for the general population (p < 0.001), while it was lower in South Asians at 2.1% (p < 0.001).
Chinese and South Asians in Ontario affected by COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic were found to have a significant difference in their demographics, cardiac, and neurological outcomes.
Frozen embryo transfer (FET) has been adopted by growing number of reproductive medicine centers due to the improved outcome compared with fresh embryo transfer. However, few studies have focused on the impact of embryo cryopreservation duration on pregnancy-related complications and neonatal birthweight. Thus, a retrospective cohort study including all FET cycles with livebirth deliveries in a university affiliated hospital from May 2010 to September 2017 was conducted. These deliveries were grouped by the cryopreservation duration of the transferred embryo (≤3 months, 4–6 months, 7–12 months, and >12 months). The associations between embryo cryopreservation duration and pregnancy-related complications were evaluated among the groups using multinomial logistic regression. Neonatal birthweight was compared according to the stratification of singletons and multiples using multinomial and multilevel logistic regression, respectively. Among all 12,158 FET cycles, a total of 3864 livebirth deliveries comprising 2995 singletons and 1739 multiples were included. Compared with those within 3 months, women undergoing FET after a cryopreservation time longer than 3 months did not show any increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, or preterm birth. Furthermore, the risk of lower birthweight, macrosomia, small-for-gestational-age, or large-for-gestational-age for either singletons or multiples was not affected by long-term cryopreservation. In summary, embryo cryopreservation duration does not have negative effects on pregnancy-related complications or birthweight after FET.
Nosocomial outbreaks leading to healthcare worker (HCW) infection and death have been increasingly reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
We implemented a strategy to reduce nosocomial acquisition.
We summarized our experience in implementing a multipronged infection control strategy in the first 300 days (December 31, 2019, to October 25, 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic under the governance of Hospital Authority in Hong Kong.
Of 5,296 COVID-19 patients, 4,808 (90.8%) were diagnosed in the first pandemic wave (142 cases), second wave (896 cases), and third wave (3,770 cases) in Hong Kong. With the exception of 1 patient who died before admission, all COVID-19 patients were admitted to the public healthcare system for a total of 78,834 COVID-19 patient days. The median length of stay was 13 days (range, 1–128). Of 81,955 HCWs, 38 HCWs (0.05%; 2 doctors and 11 nurses and 25 nonprofessional staff) acquired COVID-19. With the exception of 5 of 38 HCWs (13.2%) infected by HCW-to-HCW transmission in the nonclinical settings, no HCW had documented transmission from COVID-19 patients in the hospitals. The incidence of COVID-19 among HCWs was significantly lower than that of our general population (0.46 per 1,000 HCWs vs 0.71 per 1,000 population; P = .008). The incidence of COVID-19 among professional staff was significantly lower than that of nonprofessional staff (0.30 vs 0.66 per 1,000 full-time equivalent; P = .022).
A hospital-based approach spared our healthcare service from being overloaded. With our multipronged infection control strategy, no nosocomial COVID-19 in was identified among HCWs in the first 300 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong.
Schizophrenia patients have markedly elevated prevalence of diabetes compared with the general population. However, risk of mortality and diabetes-related complications among schizophrenia patients with co-occurring diabetes is understudied.
We investigated whether schizophrenia increased the risk of overall mortality, complications and post-complication mortality in people with diabetes.
This population-based, propensity-score matched (1:10) cohort study identified 6991 patients with incident diabetes and pre-existing schizophrenia and 68 682 patients with incident diabetes only between 2001 and 2016 in Hong Kong using a medical record database of public healthcare services. Association between schizophrenia and all-cause mortality was examined with a Cox proportional hazards model. Effect of schizophrenia on first-year complication occurrence following diabetes diagnosis and post-complication mortality rates were evaluated.
Schizophrenia was associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.18), particularly among men and older age groups. Schizophrenia patients with diabetes had higher metabolic complication rate (aHR 1.99, 95% CI 1.63–2.42), lower microvascular complication rate (aHR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65–0.86) and comparable macrovascular complication rate (aHR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85–1.03), relative to patients with diabetes only. Among patients with diabetes complications, schizophrenia was associated with elevated all-cause mortality after macrovascular (aHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04–1.37) and microvascular (aHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08–1.64) complications. Gender-stratified analyses revealed that a significant effect of schizophrenia on heightened post-complication mortality was observed in men only.
Schizophrenia patients with co-occurring diabetes are at increased risk of excess mortality, including post-complication mortality. Further research identifying effective interventions is warranted to optimise diabetes-related outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Extensive environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We report our experience with the practice of directly observed environmental disinfection (DOED) in a community isolation facility (CIF) and a community treatment facility (CTF) in Hong Kong.
The CIF, with 250 single-room bungalows in a holiday camp, opened on July 24, 2020, to receive step-down patients from hospitals. The CTF, with 500 beds in open cubicles inside a convention hall, was activated on August 1, 2020, to admit newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients from the community. Healthcare workers (HCWs) and cleaning staff received infection control training to reinforce donning and doffing of personal protective equipment and to understand the practice of DOED, in which the cleaning staff observed patient and staff activities and then performed environmental disinfection immediately thereafter. Supervisors also observed cleaning staff to ensure the quality of work. In the CTF, air and environmental samples were collected on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR. Patient compliance with mask wearing was also recorded.
Of 291 HCWs and 54 cleaning staff who managed 243 patients in the CIF and 674 patients in the CTF from July 24 to August 29, 2020, no one acquired COVID-19. All 24 air samples and 520 environmental samples collected in the patient area of the CTF were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patient compliance with mask wearing was 100%.
With appropriate infection control measures, zero environmental contamination and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to HCWs and cleaning staff was achieved.