To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Stenting of ostial pulmonary artery stenosis presents several unique challenges. These include difficulty in defining anatomy and need for precise stent placement in order to avoid missing the ostial stenosis or jailing either the contralateral branch pulmonary artery or the ipsilateral upper lobe branch.
A retrospective review of outcomes was conducted in 1.5 or 2-ventricle patients who underwent stent placement for ostial branch pulmonary artery stenosis. Specific catheterisation lab techniques were reviewed.
Forty-seven branch pulmonary arteries underwent stent placement for ostial stenosis in 43 patients. The median age and weight were 3.7 (0.3–18.1) years and 14.2 (5.6–70.0) kg, respectively. Three (2–8) angiographic projections were needed to profile the ostial stenosis. Open-cell stents were used in 23 and stents were modified in 5 cases. Following stent implantation, the minimum diameter improved from 3.6 (0.8–10.5) to 8.1 (4.2–16.5) mm (p < 0.001). The gradient improved from 21 (0–66) to 4 (0–27) mmHg (p < 0.001). Stent malposition occurred in eight (17%) of the stents placed. Five migrated distally causing suboptimal ostial coverage necessitating placement of a second stent in four. Three migrated proximally and partially jailed the contralateral pulmonary artery. Intentional jailing of the upper lobe branch occurred in four additional cases. At a follow-up of 2.4 (0.3–4.9) years, 15 stents underwent further dilation and 1 had a second stent placed within the exiting stent.
Ostial branch pulmonary artery stenosis may require additional angiography to accurately define the ostial stenosis. Treatment with stents is effective but carries high rates of stent malposition.
One indication for intervention in coarctation of the aorta is a peak-to-peak gradient >20 mmHg. Gradients may be masked in patients under general anaesthesia and may be higher during exercise. Isoproterenol was given during cardiac catheterisation to simulate a more active physiologic state.
We aimed to describe the haemodynamic effects of isoproterenol in patients with coarctation and the impact of intervention on the elicited gradients.
A retrospective study was performed on two-ventricle patients who underwent cardiac catheterisation for coarctation with isoproterenol testing.
25 patients received isoproterenol before and after intervention. With isoproterenol, the mean diastolic (p=0.0015) and mean arterial (p=0.0065) blood pressures proximal to the coarctation decreased significantly. The mean systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures distal to the coarctation decreased significantly (p<0.0001). In patients with a baseline gradient ⩽20 mmHg (n=17) at catheterisation, the median gradient increased from 10 (0–20) to 30 (15–50) mmHg (p<0.0001) with isoproterenol. Of these, 15 patients developed a gradient >20 mmHg. Post intervention, the median gradient decreased to 2 (0–29) mmHg, versus baseline, p=0.005, and with isoproterenol it decreased to 8 (0–27) mmHg, versus pre-intervention isoproterenol, p<0.0001. There were significant improvements in the gradients by Doppler (<0.0001) and by blood pressure cuff (p=0.0313). The gradients on isoproterenol best correlated with gradients by blood pressure cuff in the awake state (R2=0.76, p<0.0001).
Isoproterenol can be a useful tool to assess the significance of a coarctation and the effectiveness of an intervention. Percutaneous interventions can effectively reduce the gradients elicited by isoproterenol.
The aim of the present study was to determine the outcomes of using the Valeo stent (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America) in small children with CHD.
Stenting vascular stenoses is safe and effective in adults and older children with CHD but is limited in smaller children. The design of the Valeo stent addresses these limitations but has not been extensively described.
Bench testing was conducted to determine the maximum diameter of the stent, foreshortening, and side-cell diameter. A retrospective analysis of Valeo stents implanted between October, 2012 and October, 2014 was performed. Patient profile, pre-implant/post-implant catheterization data, and stent geometry were reviewed.
Bench testing: medium and large Valeo stents can be dilated up to 13 mm and 20 mm diameters, respectively. Side-cells are dilatable up to 12 mm. Valeo stents are of low profile – delivered through 6- or 7-Fr sheaths – and show minimal foreshortening. Retrospective analysis: a total of 81 stents were implanted in 61 patients with CHD. The median weight was 15.3 kg, and the median age was 58.9 months. Stents were implanted in the pulmonary artery, systemic vein, aorta, and pulmonary vein. Overall, mean vessel diameters increased from 4.1 to 7.7 mm (121.7%). There was effective mean gradient reduction: 3.7–0.5 mmHg (63%) in the venous systems, 28.2–12.5 mmHg (63.7%) in the pulmonary arteries, and 17.4–4 mmHg (77.1%) in the aorta. The mean stent foreshortening was 2.5%, and the mean recoil was 5.9%. Side-cells that crossed other vessels were dilated in four cases, and stents were re-mounted onto different-sized balloons in seven cases.
The features of the Valeo stent, such as low profile, large maximum diameter, open-cell design, minimal foreshortening, and recoil, make it suitable for treating vascular stenoses in small children with CHD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.