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ABSTRACT IMPACT: We conducted a study to understand how a patient’s report of a new diagnosis compares with what was documented in the electronic medical record, since it is critical to the diagnostic process that the patient both understands and agrees with a new diagnosis. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought feedback on patient’s understanding of their diagnosis and health status follow Emergency Department discharge. We compared patient report of a new diagnosis to documentation in the electronic medical record. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To compare patient reported diagnoses to documented diagnoses, we employed a longitudinal cohort study design at 3 of emergency departments in an academic health system in the Mid-Atlantic. Patients consented to complete questionnaires regarding their understanding of their diagnosis and/or follow-up steps and their health status at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months following emergency department discharge. Inclusion criteria: adult ED patients aged 18 and older seen within the last 7 days with one or more of the following common chief complaints: chest pain, upper back pain, abdominal pain, shortness of breath/cough, dizziness, and headache. We compared patient report of a new diagnosis following discharge to documentation in the electronic medical record. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the sample recruited (n=137), the majority were women (66%, n=91), the average age was 42 (SD 16). A third (n=45) were black and 56% (n=76) were white. The majority of participants (84%, n=115) reported that they either understood the diagnosis they received on ED discharge, or were not given a diagnosis but they understood follow-up steps. At two weeks following discharge, 25% of participants (n=36) had a new diagnosis identified after discharge and 33% (n=45) reported that their health status stayed the same or worsened. There was 85% agreement (kappa 0.49) between patient report of a new diagnosis and a new diagnosis identified in the electronic medical record. Only one of the participants who reported a new diagnosis also reported seeking healthcare outside of the health system. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Patient report of a new diagnosis following emergency department discharge had moderate agreement with new diagnoses identified in the electronic medical record, and differences in agreement were not explained by outside healthcare visits.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Leveraging Patient’s Experience to improve Diagnosis (LEAPED) is our proposed method of measuring diagnostic error through seeking patient feedback on their understanding of their diagnosis and health status following emergency department discharge. To pilot test LEAPED’s feasibility, we deployed and determined patient uptake of LEAPED. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To test LEAPED, we employed a longitudinal cohort study design at emergency departments across one academic health system in the Mid-Atlantic region. Patients consented to complete questionnaires regarding their understanding of their diagnosis and/or follow-up steps and their health status at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months following emergency department discharge. People aged 18 and older who were seen at the emergency department within the past 7 days with at least one chronic condition (hypertension, diabetes, history of stroke, arthritis, cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, depression, and/or chronic obstructive lung disease) and one or more of the following common chief complaints: chest pain, upper back pain, abdominal pain, shortness of breath/cough, dizziness, and headache were eligible to join the study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of those enrolled (n = 59), 95% (n = 53) responded to the two week post-ED discharge questionnaire (1 and 3-month ongoing). Of the 6 non-responders, 1 had died and 3 were hospitalized at two weeks. The average age was 50 years (SD 16) and 64% were female. Over half of participants (53%) were white and 41% were black. Almost one-third (27%) reported they were not given an explanation of their health problem on leaving the ED, and of those, a third did not have an understanding of what steps to take after leaving the ED. Participants reported a new health problem was identified after ED discharge (19%), worsening health status (12%), and health status stayed the same (16%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Patient uptake of LEAPED was high, which suggests that patient-report is a feasible method of evaluating diagnostic decision making and delivery to patients and yields insightful information beyond administrative data. The next steps are to validate the accuracy of patient-reported diagnostic error by comparing with administrative data.
The filing of criminal charges against a group of clinicians in New Orleans for failure to meet expected standards of care following the hurricanes of 2005 made the growing concern among health professionals about care provided during extreme emergencies or disasters all too real. Questions about what may lead to censure, penalties from licensing boards, or lawsuits have come from nurses, physicians, and many other licensed health professionals. A panel convened by the American Nurses Association that included representatives of medical, public health, hospital, and government agencies considered the ethical, professional, and practical aspects of meeting standards of care in such circumstances. Clinicians are reminded that in emergencies, it is only the circumstances that change (perhaps radically); neither the individual’s professional competency nor the basic professional standard of care is different. In making prioritized decisions under such circumstances, the individual’s ethical framework is utilitarian, and there are 3 areas for action, even when some routine tasks are set aside: maintain worker and patient safety; maintain airway, breathing, and circulation; and establish or maintain infection control. Policy recommendations such as state legislation for the adoption of comprehensive immunity for volunteer health care workers, and the establishment of a medical review panel as arbitration board are also suggested. The resulting white paper summarizes the issues and provides guidance to individual professionals, institutions in which they work, and emergency planners. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2009;3:111–116)
Pregnancy-related weight retention can contribute to obesity, and breast-feeding may facilitate postpartum weight loss. We investigated the effect of breast-feeding on postpartum weight retention.
A retrospective follow-up study of weight retention, compared in women who were fully breast-feeding, combining breast-feeding with formula-feeding (mixed feeding), or formula-feeding at 3 months (n 14 330) or 6 months (n 4922) postpartum, controlling for demographic and weight-related covariates using multiple linear regression.
The North Carolina Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).
Participants in the North Carolina WIC Programme who delivered a baby between 1996 and 2004.
In covariate-adjusted analyses, there was no association between breast-feeding and weight retention at 3 months postpartum. At 6 months postpartum, as compared to formula-feeders, mean weight retention was 0·84 kg lower in mixed feeders (95 % CI 0·39, 1·29; P = 0·0002) and 1·38 kg lower in full breast-feeders (95 % CI 0·89, 1·87; P ≤ 0·0001).
Breast-feeding was inversely associated with weight retention at 6 months postpartum in this large, racially diverse sample of low-income women. Further, full breast-feeding had a larger protective effect than did breast-feeding combined with formula-feeding.
To demonstrate that nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can be terminated and endemicity prevented despite widespread dissemination of an epidemic strain in a large tertiary-care referral hospital.
Two months after the index case was detected in the intensive care unit, 68 patients became either infected or colonized with an epidemic strain of vanB vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium despite standard infection control procedures. The following additional interventions were then introduced to control the outbreak: (1) formation of a VRE executive group; (2) rapid laboratory identification (30 to 48 hours) using culture and polymerase chain reaction detection of vanA and vanB resistance genes; (3) mass screening of all hospitalized patients with isolation of carriers and cohorting of contacts; (4) environmental screening and increased cleaning; (5) electronic flagging of medical records of contacts; and (6) antibiotic restrictions (third-generation cephalosporins and vancomycin).
A total of 19,658 patient and 24,396 environmental swabs were processed between July and December 2001. One hundred sixty-nine patients in 23 wards were colonized with a single strain of vanB vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. Introducing additional control measures rapidly brought the outbreak under control. Hospital-wide screening found 39 previously unidentified colonized patients, with only 7 more nonsegregat-ed patients being detected in the next 2 months. The outbreak was terminated within 3 months at a cost of $2.7 million (Australian dollars).
Despite widespread dissemination of VRE in a large acute care facility, eradication was achievable by a well-resourced, coordinated, multifaceted approach and was in accordance with good clinical governance.
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