Direct wafer bonding was performed under medium vacuum condition. High bonding strength (larger than 20 MPa) is achieved at the bonding temperature of only 400°C, and the annealing time for complete bonding is less than 5 hours. The bonding efficiency (percentage of the bonded area over entire wafer area) of the medium vacuum wafer bonding (MVWB) is also found to be better than the traditional wafer bonding.
Qualitative description of the mechanism of MVWB is proposed in present work. It is believed that the medium vacuum can enhance the out-diffusion of the water molecules and other trapped impurities through the bonding interface which is porous initially. This enhanced diffusion speeds up the chemical reaction for the formation of Si-O-Si, and thus more bonding sites are available before the interface close-up. As a result, we observe an increase in bonding strength, bonding efficiency and the bonding speed.