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Elucidating individual aberrance is a critical first step toward precision medicine for heterogeneous disorders such as depression. The neuropathology of depression is related to abnormal inter-regional structural covariance indicating a brain maturational disruption. However, most studies focus on group-level structural covariance aberrance and ignore the interindividual heterogeneity. For that reason, we aimed to identify individualized structural covariance aberrance with the help of individualized differential structural covariance network (IDSCN) analysis.
T1-weighted anatomical images of 195 first-episode untreated patients with depression and matched healthy controls (n = 78) were acquired. We obtained IDSCN for each patient and identified subtypes of depression based on shared differential edges.
As a result, patients with depression demonstrated tremendous heterogeneity in the distribution of differential structural covariance edges. Despite this heterogeneity, altered edges within subcortical-cerebellum network were often shared by most of the patients. Two robust neuroanatomical subtypes were identified. Specifically, patients in subtype 1 often shared decreased motor network-related edges. Patients in subtype 2 often shared decreased subcortical-cerebellum network-related edges. Functional annotation further revealed that differential edges in subtype 2 were mainly implicated in reward/motivation-related functional terms.
In conclusion, we investigated individualized differential structural covariance and identified that decreased edges within subcortical-cerebellum network are often shared by patients with depression. The identified two subtypes provide new insights into taxonomy and facilitate potential clues to precision diagnosis and treatment of depression.
Previous research indicates that parental emotion socialization (ES) practices play important roles in adolescents’ social and emotional development. However, longitudinal studies testing bidirectional effects are relatively scarce. Additionally, most studies have focused on people from Western societies. In the current 3-year, multi-informant, longitudinal study of Chinese adolescents and their parents, we investigated prospective bidirectional effects between parental positive ES practices and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms). Adolescents (N = 710 at T1, 50% boys, Mage = 12.41, SD = 0.59) reported on parental positive ES practices and their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem when they were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade. Mothers and fathers reported on their own use of positive ES practices at all three time points. We utilized a random intercept cross-lagged panel model to examine between- and within-family effects. Overall results showed robust effects of adolescent depressive symptoms on parental positive ES practices and bidirectional effects between parental ES and adolescent self-esteem. Effects differed by informants whether using adolescent-perceived data, or mother- or father-reported data. However, these child effects and bidirectional effects did not differ by adolescent sex. Our findings add to the understanding of parental ES and adolescent psychosocial adjustment.
Do US Circuit Courts' decisions on criminal appeals influence sentence lengths imposed by US District Courts? This Element explores the use of high-dimensional instrumental variables to estimate this causal relationship. Using judge characteristics as instruments, this Element implements two-stage models on court sentencing data for the years 1991 through 2013. This Element finds that Democratic, Jewish judges tend to favor criminal defendants, while Catholic judges tend to rule against them. This Element also finds from experiments that prosecutors backlash to Circuit Court rulings while District Court judges comply. Methodologically, this Element demonstrates the applicability of deep instrumental variables to legal data.
The southern Great Xing’an Range (SGXR), located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the most economically important Cu–Mo–Fe–Sn–Pb–Zn–Ag metallogenic provinces in China. The newly discovered Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn deposit (9.3 Mt; at 1.36% Cu, 2.90% Pb, 3.80% Zn and 38.12 g/t Ag), located in the SE segment of the SGXR, is primarily hosted in fracture zones in volcanic rocks and granodiorite of the Manitu Formation. Four paragenetic stages of metallic mineralization are identified: (I) quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite; (II) quartz-polymetallic sulphide; (III) quartz-galena-sphalerite-argentite; and (IV) quartz-calcite-minor sulphide. The hydrothermal quartz contains three types of primary fluid inclusion (FIs): vapour-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (LV-type), liquid-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (VL-type) and three-phase liquid-vapour-solid FIs (SL-type). Stages I and II contain all types with homogenization temperatures (Th) of 324–386 °C and 276–334 °C as well as salinities of 0.7–38.0 wt% and 0.9–34.7 wt%, respectively, whereas stage III is composed of VL- and LV-type FIs with Th of 210–269 °C and salinities of 0.5–7.2 wt%. Only VL-type FIs occur in stage IV, with Th of 139–185 °C and salinities of 1.6–4.2 wt%. The δ18OH2O and δD values vary from −15.7 to 2.6‰ and −132.7 to −110.2‰, respectively, indicating predominant meteoric water with an initial magmatic source. The He–Ar isotopic compositions of the pyrite inclusions from the Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn veins suggest that fluids were derived from the crust.
Bragg scattering of nonlinear surface waves over a wavy bottom is studied using two-dimensional fully nonlinear numerical wave tanks (NWTs). In particular, we consider cases of high nonlinearity which lead to complex wave generation and transformations, hence possible multiple Bragg resonances. The performance of the NWTs is well verified by benchmarking experiments. Classic Bragg resonances associated with second-order triad interactions among two surface (linear incident and reflected waves) and one bottom wave components (class I), and third-order quartet interactions among three surface (linear incident and reflected waves, and second-order reflected/transmitted waves) and one bottom wave components (class III) are observed. In addition, class I Bragg resonance occurring for the second-order (rather than linear) transmitted waves, and Bragg resonance arising from quintet interactions among three surface and two bottom wave components, are newly captured. The latter is denoted class IV Bragg resonance which magnifies bottom nonlinearity. It is also found that wave reflection and transmission at class III Bragg resonance have a quadratic rather than a linear relation with the bottom slope if the bottom size increases to a certain level. The surface wave and bottom nonlinearities are found to play opposite roles in shifting the Bragg resonance conditions. Finally, the results indicate that Bragg resonances are responsible for the phenomena of beating and parasitic beating, leading to a significantly large local free surface motion in front of the depth transition.
We aimed to examine the association between the quantity and quality of dietary fat in early pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. 1477 singleton pregnancy women were included from Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children, Southwest China. Dietary information was collected by a 3-d 24-h dietary recall. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 gestational weeks. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CI. The results showed that total fat intake was positively associated with GDM risk (Q4 v. Q1: RR=1.40; 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.76; Ptrend= 0.001). This association was also observed for the intakes of animal fat and vegetable fat. After stratified by total fat intake (<30%E v. ≥30%E), the higher animal fat intake was associated with higher GDM risk in the high-fat group but the moderate animal fat intake was associated with reduced risk of GDM (T2 v. T1: RR= 0.65; 95 % CI: 0.45, 0.96) in the normal-fat group. Vegetable fat intake was positively associated with GDM risk in the high-fat group but not in the normal-fat group. No association between fatty acids intakes and GDM risk were found. In conclusion, total fat, animal and vegetable fat intakes were positively associated with GDM risk, respectively. Whereas, when total fat intake was not excessive, higher intakes of animal and vegetable fat were likely irrelevant with increased GDM risk, even the moderate animal fat intake could be linked to lower GDM risk.
Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of infant birth weight, and having adequate total GWG has been widely recommended. However, the association of timing of GWG with birth weight remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association, especially among women with adequate total GWG. In a prospective cohort study, pregnant women’s weight was routinely measured during pregnancy, and their GWG was calculated for the ten intervals: the first 13, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–30, 31–32, 33–34, 35–36, 37–38 and 39–40 weeks. Birth weight was measured, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age were assessed. Generalized linear and Poisson models were used to evaluate the associations of GWG with birth weight and its outcomes after multivariate adjustment, respectively. Of the 5049 women, increased GWG in the first 30 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for male infants, and increased GWG in the first 28 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for females. Among 1713 women with adequate total GWG, increased GWG percent between 14 and 23 weeks was associated with increased birth weight. Moreover, inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks, compared with the adequate GWG, was associated with an increased risk of SGA (43 (13·7 %) v. 42 (7·2 %); relative risk 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·76). Timing of GWG may influence infant birth weight differentially, and women with inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks may be at higher risk of delivering SGA infants, despite having adequate total GWG.
Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe and life-threatening complication, characterised by multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. However, there is limited information on the impact of various comorbidities on HBV-ACLF in a large population. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between comorbidities, complications and mortality. In this retrospective observational study, we identified 2166 cases of HBV-ACLF hospitalised from January 2010 to March 2018. Demographic data from the patients, medical history, treatment, laboratory indices, comorbidities and complications were collected. The mortality rate in our study group was 47.37%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity, followed by alcoholic liver disease. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were common in these patients. Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for death within 90 days, together with gastrointestinal bleeding and HE at admission, HE and hepatorenal syndrome during hospitalisation. Knowledge of risk factors can help identify HBV-ACLF patients with a poor prognosis for HBV-ACLF with comorbidities and complications.
COVID-19 is erupting globally, and Wuhan successfully controlled it within a month. Infections arose from infectious persons outside hospitals. After data revision, data-based and model-based analyses were implemented, and the conclusions are as follows. The incubation period of most infected people may be 6-7 days. The number of infectious persons outside hospitals in Wuhan on January 20, 2020 was about 10000 and reached more than 20000 on the day of Lockdown; it exceeded 72000 on February 4. Both data-based and model-based analyses gave out the evolution of the reproduction number, which was over 2.5 in early January, went down to 1.62 in late January and 1.20 in early February, with a sudden drop to less than 0.5 due to the strict Stay-at-home management after February 11. Strategies of Stay-at-home, Safe-protective measures, and Ark hospitals were the main contributions to control COVID-19 in Wuhan. In Wuhan, 2 inflection points of COVID-19, exactly correspond to February 5 and February 15, the 2 days when Ark hospitals were introduced, and the complete implementation of Stay-at-home. Based on the expression of the reproduction number, group immunity is also discussed. It shows that only when the group immunization rate is over 75% can COVID-19 be under control; group immunity would be full infection and the total deaths will be 220000 for a city as big as Wuhan. Sensitivity analysis suggests that 30% of people staying at home in combination with better behavior changes, such as social-distancing and frequent handwashing, can effectively contain COVID-19. However, only when this proportion is over 60% can the controlled effect and efficiency like Wuhan be obtained.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
The effects of a wavy wall on the stability of a hypersonic boundary layer on a flared cone are investigated by detailed experimental measurements and direct numerical simulations. The non-contact optical measurement method of focused laser differential interferometry is used to measure the disturbance development within the wavy region. The measurement results show that the second mode for the wavy wall is suppressed significantly compared with the smooth wall, and that multiple disturbances at low frequencies appear within the wavy region. Numerical corroboration against experimental measurements reveals good quantitative agreement. It is found that the disturbances at $f=360$ kHz on the wavy wall are suppressed appreciably, which are very significant on the smooth wall. And the disturbances at $f=140$ kHz and $f=260$ kHz develop within the wavy region, and increase considerably. Also, the disturbances achieve a significant increase over the first half of a wavy trough and become more stable over the second half of a wavy trough. The physical mechanism is found to be due to the change in wall geometry and is attributed to the spatially modulated mean flow. The disturbance growth rate is closely related to the level of the mean-flow distortion.
Neuromedin U (NMU) has a critical function on the regulation of food intake in mammals, while the information is little in teleost. To investigate the function of NMU on appetite regulation of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), this study first cloned nmu cDNA sequence that encoded 154 amino acids including NMU-25 peptide. Besides, the results showed that nmu mRNA was widely distributed in various tissues especially in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The results of nutritional status (pre-feeding and post-feeding, fasting and re-feeding) experiments showed that nmu mRNA expression was significantly decreased at 1 and 3 h after feeding in different brain regions. Similarly, after feeding, the expression of nmu significantly decreased in peripheral tissues. Moreover, nmu expression in the hypothalamus was significantly increased after fasting 1 d, but decreased after fasting 17 d, which was significantly reversed after re-feeding. However, other brain regions like telencephalon and peripheral tissues like oesophagus, intestinum valvula and liver have different change patterns. Further study showed that acute i.c.v. and i.p. injection of NMU and chronic i.p. injection of NMU significantly reduced the food intake in a dose-dependent mode. In addition, the expressions of several critical appetite factors (nmu, aplein, cart, cck, ghrelin, npy, nucb2, pyy and ucn3) were significantly affected by acute NMU-25 administration in the hypothalamus, intestinum valvula and liver. These results indicate that NMU-25 has the anorexigenic function on food intake by affecting different appetite factors in Siberian sturgeon, which provides a foundation for further exploring the appetite regulation networks in fish.
Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.