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The Dayao Paleolithic site, located in Inner Mongolia on the eastern margin of China's vast northwestern drylands, was a lithic quarry-workshop utilized by Pleistocene human migrants through the region. Determining the age of this activity has previously yielded controversial results. Our magnetostratigraphic and OSL dating results suggest the two artifact-bearing paleosols are correlated with MIS 5 and 7, respectively. Correlating paleoclimatic data with marine δ18O records leads us to conclude that two sandy gravel layers containing many artifacts in the lower part of the Dayao sequence were formed during MIS 9 and 11, if not earlier. Our results reveal that the earliest human occupation at the Dayao site occurred before ca. 400 ka during a relatively warm and moist interglacial period, similar to several subsequent occupations, documenting the earliest and northernmost archaeological assemblage yet reported in China's arid northwest. We conclude that the northward and southward displacements of the East Asian summer monsoon rain belt during past interglacial-glacial cycles were responsible for the discontinuous human occupation detected at the Dayao site. The penetration of this precipitation regime into dryland ecologies via the Huanghe (Yellow River) Valley effectively created a corridor for hominin migration into China's arid northwest.
Surface molecularly imprinted polymer of solanesol (SA-SMIP) was prepared by reversed phase suspension polymerization using modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) as carrier, and operation conditions were investigated and optimized. Structures of modified TiO2 and SA-SMIP obtained at optimal conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer adopting original TiO2 and non-surface molecularly imprinted polymer as reference. The SA-SMIP synthesized under optimal conditions displayed an excellent recognition of SA from the mixture of SA and triacontanol. The maximum separation degree of SA was 2.90. Finally, the adsorption kinetics and isotherm were investigated and analyzed. Adsorption kinetics results indicated that the adsorption of SA-SMIP to SA was a pseudo-second order process, and the adsorption of beginning and later stages was controlled by homogeneous particle diffusion and adsorption reaction process, respectively. Adsorption isotherm results documented hereby were two sorts of bonding sites, complete imprinted cavities and defective imprinted cavities. The adsorption for two bonding sites could be well lined up with the Langmuir model.
The head-on collision, merging and internal mixing dynamics of two unequal-sized droplets were experimentally studied and interpreted, using water, $n$-decane and $n$-tetradecane to identify the distinguishing effects of surface tension and liquid viscosity on the merging and mixing patterns. It is shown that, upon merging of water and $n$-decane droplets, mushroom-like jets of dissimilar characteristics develop within the merged mass for small and large values of the impact Weber number (We), and that such jets are not developed for intermediate values of We. Furthermore, such jet-like mixing patterns were not observed for droplets of $n$-tetradecane, which has smaller surface tension and larger viscosity as compared to water. A regime nomogram relating the Ohnesorge and symmetric Weber numbers is constructed, providing a unified interpretation of the internal mixing patterns. Numerical simulations based on an improved volume-of-fluid method and an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm provide auxiliary diagnoses of the flow fields and the observed phenomena.
Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in hard tissue implants. However, the fast degradation rate in the biological environment has hampered widespread applications. We propose to use a ZrO2 coating in conjunction with a Zr transition layer to improve the corrosion resistance of AZ91 magnesium alloy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy discloses that the coating is composed of ZrO2. The Vickers hardness measurement demonstrates that the surface hardness of the alloy is significantly enhanced. The electrochemical behavior of the coated sample is systematically evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization, open-circuit potential evolution, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy is enhanced significantly, and the electrode-controlled processes in a coated alloy–solution system are discussed.
Fast degradation rates in the physiological environment constitute the main limitation for magnesium alloys used in biodegradable hard tissue implants. In this work, the corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluids (SBF) was systematically investigated to determine its performance in a physiological environment. The influence of the main constituent phases on the corrosion behavior was studied by in situ visual observation and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy revealed that both calcium and magnesium phosphates are present in the corroded products besides magnesium oxide. Electrochemical methods including open circuit potential evolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanism. The corresponding electrode controlled processes and evolution of the corrosion products layer were discussed. The degradation rate after immersion in SBF for seven days was calculated from both the weight loss and hydrogen evolution methods.
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