To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The use of pelvic ultrasound to investigate the subfertile female needs a close collaboration between the gynecologist and the radiologist. Ultrasonography is now a must in the investigation of ovulation disorders, along with clinical findings and hormonal assays. It allows estimation of the ovarian function, mainly estrogen secretion, through measurement of the endometrial thickness: endometrial atrophy or severe hypotrophy (thickness more than 5 mm) indicates hypoestrogenism. It also contributes greatly to the diagnosis of ovulation disorders, in particular polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and primary ovarian failure (POF), along with the clinical/biological data. The ultrasound is sensitive in detecting those lesions that are responsible for infertility through interference with egg migration and implantation and/or with sperm progression, such as fibroids, polyps, synechiae, or malformations. The 3D ultrasound can help in the diagnosis of uterine malformations. The majority of tubal obstructions are secondary to sexually transmitted infections, particularly gonorrhea and chlamydia.