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Fine mapping and discovery of watermelon rind trait candidate genes are of great significance for modern watermelon breeding and development. In this study, we used the high-resolution genetic mapping and genome-wide genetic variation detection technology, combined with genome survey and sequencing technology, to locate and discover the candidate genes for rind traits of star watermelon varieties ‘Su XuanBai’ and ‘SHLX21’. Firstly, we identified a total of eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to watermelon rind traits on chromosome 6. Secondly, a total of 208,240 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 75,345 small Indels (insertions/deletions) were detected in the two parents by high-coverage re-sequencing, respectively. Based on the genetic variation of the two parents and combined with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis using the planta database, the QTL region was reduced to 0.02 Mb. Finally, we identified the six potential regulatory factors for watermelon rind traits using real-time quantitative PCR. In conclusion, our results revealed the fine localization of candidate genes for watermelon rind traits and the successful discovery of candidate genes for regulating watermelon rind traits, which is of importance for watermelon rind traits and breeding-improved watermelon varieties.
This study presents novel findings on stochastic electron heating via a random electron cyclotron wave (ECW) in a spherical tokamak. Hard x ray measurements demonstrate the time evolution of hard x ray counts at different energy bands, consistent with predictions from the stochastic heating model. The ECW heating rate shows a positive correlation with applied power, confirming the effectiveness of stochastic heating. Remarkably, the ECW-driven plasma current remains insensitive to ECW incidence angle, consistent with model predictions. The observed stochastic heating of electrons offers potential for exploring innovative non-inductive current drive modes in spherical tokamaks. This research contributes to the understanding of plasma behaviour and motivates the development of new models for non-inductive current drive in fusion devices.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to arise from dysconnectivity among interlinked brain regions resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Cortical gyrification, a key morphological feature of human cerebral cortex, has been considered associated with developmental connectivity in early life. Monitoring cortical gyrification alterations may provide new insights into the developmental pathogenesis of OCD.
Sixty-two medication-naive patients with OCD and 59 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. Local gyrification index (LGI) was extracted from T1-weighted MRI data to identify the gyrification changes in OCD. Total distortion (splay, bend, or twist of fibers) was calculated using diffusion-weighted MRI data to examine the changes in white matter microstructure in patients with OCD.
Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed significantly increased LGI in bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right precuneus, where the mean LGI was positively correlated with anxiety score. Patients with OCD also showed significantly decreased total distortion in the body, genu, and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), where the average distortion was negatively correlated with anxiety scores. Intriguingly, the mean LGI of the affected cortical regions was significantly correlated with the mean distortion of the affected white matter tracts in patients with OCD.
We demonstrated associations among increased LGI, aberrant white matter geometry, and higher anxiety in patients with OCD. Our findings indicate that developmental dysconnectivity-driven alterations in cortical folding are one of the neural substrates underlying the clinical manifestations of OCD.
Supersonic flow over a hollow cylinder/flare with a free-stream Mach number of 2.25 is numerically investigated in this study. Axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics simulations and global stability analysis (GSA) are performed for a wide range of cylinder radii and flare deflection angles. The onset of incipient and secondary separation is delayed as the cylinder radius is decreased due to the axisymmetric effects. The GSA reveals that a decrease in cylinder radius also postpones the emergence of global instability. The GSA results agree well with the results of direct numerical simulations for a supercritical case in the linear stage. The saturated flow exhibits pairs of unsteady streamwise streaks downstream of reattachment. The criterion of the global stability boundary established for supersonic flow over a compression corner (Hao et al., J. Fluid Mech, vol. 919, 2021, A4) is extended to its axisymmetric counterpart.
We explored the utility of the standardized infection ratio (SIR) for surgical site infection (SSI) reporting in an Australian jurisdiction.
Retrospective chart review.
Statewide SSI surveillance data from 2013 to 2019.
Individuals who had cardiac bypass surgery (CABG), colorectal surgery (COLO), cesarean section (CSEC), hip prosthesis (HPRO), or knee prosthesis (KPRO) procedures.
The SIR was calculated by dividing the number of observed infections by the number of predicted infections as determined using the National Healthcare Safety Network procedure-specific risk models. In line with a minimum precision criterion, an SIR was not calculated if the number of predicted infections was <1.
A SIR >0 (≥1 observed SSI, predicted number of SSI ≥1, no missing covariates) could be calculated for a median of 89.3% of reporting quarters for CABG, 75.0% for COLO, 69.0% for CSEC, 0% for HPRO, and 7.1% for KPRO. In total, 80.6% of the reporting quarters, when the SIR was not calculated, were due to no observed infections or predicted infections <1, and 19.4% were due to missing covariates alone. Within hospitals, the median percentage of quarters during which zero infections were observed was 8.9% for CABG, 20.0% for COLO, 25.4% for CSEC, 67.3% for HPRO, and 71.4% for KPRO.
Calculating an SIR for SSIs is challenging for hospitals in our regional network, primarily because of low event numbers and many facilities with predicted infections <1. Our SSI reporting will continue to use risk-indexed rates, in tandem with SIR values when predicted number of SSI ≥1.
The present study focuses on two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of shallow-water breaking waves, specifically those generated by a wave plate at constant water depths. The primary objective is to quantitatively analyse the dynamics, kinematics and energy dissipation associated with wave breaking. The numerical results exhibit good agreement with experimental data in terms of free-surface profiles during wave breaking. A parametric study was conducted to examine the influence of various wave properties and initial conditions on breaking characteristics. According to research on the Bond number ($Bo$, the ratio of gravitational to surface tension forces), an increased surface tension leads to the formation of more prominent parasitic capillaries at the forwards face of the wave profile and a thicker plunging jet, which causes a delayed breaking time and is tightly correlated with the main cavity size. A close relationship between wave statistics and the initial conditions of the wave plate is discovered, allowing for the classification of breaker types based on the ratio of wave height to water depth, $H/d$. Moreover, an analysis based on inertial scaling arguments reveals that the energy dissipation rate due to breaking can be linked to the local geometry of the breaking crest $H_b/d$, and exhibits a threshold behaviour, where the energy dissipation approaches zero at a critical value of $H_b/d$. An empirical scaling of the breaking parameter is proposed as $b = a(H_b/d - \chi _0)^n$, where $\chi _0 = 0.65$ represents the breaking threshold and $n = 1.5$ is a power law determined through the best fit to the numerical results.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to an initial increase in the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) from clinical cultures in South-East Asia hospitals, which was unsustained as the pandemic progressed. Conversely, there was a decrease in CRE incidence from surveillance cultures and overall combined incidence. Further studies are needed for future pandemic preparedness.
There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
The third-order law links energy transfer rates in the inertial range of magneto- hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with third-order structure functions. Anisotropy, a typical property in the solar wind, challenges the applicability of the third-order law with the isotropic assumption. To shed light on the energy transfer process in the presence of anisotropy, we conducted direct numerical simulations of forced MHD turbulence with normal and hyper-viscosity under various strengths of the external magnetic field ($B_0$), and calculated three forms of third-order structure function with or without averaging of the azimuthal or polar angles with respect to $B_0$ direction. Correspondingly, three estimated energy transfer rates were obtained. The result shows that the peak of normalized third-order structure function occurs at larger scales closer to the $B_0$ direction, and the maximum of longitudinal transfer rates shifts away from the $B_0$ direction at larger $B_0$. Compared with normal viscous cases, hyper-viscous cases can attain better separated inertial range, thus facilitating the estimation of the energy cascade rates. We find that the widespread use of the isotropic form of the third-order law in estimating the energy transfer rates is questionable in some cases, especially when the anisotropy arising from the mean magnetic field is inevitable. In contrast, the direction-averaged third-order structure function properly accounts for the effect of anisotropy and predicts the energy transfer rates and inertial range accurately, even at very high $B_0$. With limited statistics, the third-order structure function shows a stronger dependence on averaging of azimuthal angles than the time, especially for high $B_0$ cases. These findings provide insights into the anisotropic effect on the estimation of energy transfer rates.
This study investigates the linear instability of a thin-film coating inside a rigid tube. The flow is assumed to be inertialess and driven by an axial body force (e.g. gravity), an interfacial shearing force, or their combinations. The interface and the bulk of the film are laden with soluble surfactant. The properties of the soluble surfactant, i.e. solubility, sorption kinetics and bulk diffusivity, modulate the interfacial dynamics of the film. The influence of these properties on the linear instability of the film is comprehensively investigated via long-wave approximation analysis and numerical calculation. Two modes, namely the interface mode and the surfactant mode, are identified to dominate the instability. For a quiescent film, it is found that solubility, sorption kinetics and bulk diffusivity act to improve the uniformity of the surface surfactant and mitigate the stabilizing effect of the Marangoni force. For the film driven by the axial body/interfacial shearing force, the results reveal that solubility plays contrasting roles in the interface mode and the surfactant mode. A window with intermediate solubility is detected where the film can be linearly stabilized. Moreover, sorption kinetics is found to destabilize the perturbations with long wavelength whereas it stabilizes the perturbations with finite wavelength. The bulk diffusivity of the surfactant has a non-monotonic influence on the flow instability, and the film can be relatively stable at both strong and weak diffusivity.
To accurately calculate the turbulent exchange coefficient, the contribution of multi-scale turbulent transportation needs to be considered, especially in the complex terrain of the coastal area. In September 2019, a comprehensive observation experiment on the offshore atmospheric boundary layer was carried out at the Yangmeikeng Ecological Monitoring Station and Sai Chung Gulf. Through scale decomposition, it is shown that the turbulent motion in the atmospheric boundary layer in the coastal area is affected by the underlying surface, such as that of the coastal land or the sea–land boundary. This is the main reason behind the phenomenon whereby different scales make different contributions to momentum flux. Different multi-scale characteristics of turbulent structures on the underlying surface affect the drag coefficient. Through wavelet transform and finite element method, the characteristics of the multi-scale flow structures produced by the complicated offshore terrain are analysed. It is found that large-scale flow structures enhance the pulsating intensity at the small scale, but the large-scale coherence characteristics are different from those at the small scale. In summary, in comparing these three sites, the flux exchange on the roof is greatest, followed by that on the tower. In the Gulf, the flux exchange is mainly dependent on small-scale structures, which are linked with the smallest values.
Longitudinal studies on the variations of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae across two decades are rare. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors for K. pneumoniae isolated from patients with bacteraemia or urinary tract infection (UTI) from 1999 to 2022. A total of 699 and 1,267 K. pneumoniae isolates were isolated from bacteraemia and UTI patients, respectively, and their susceptibility to twenty antibiotics was determined; PCR was used to identify capsular serotypes and virulence-associated genes. K64 and K1 serotypes were most frequently observed in UTI and bacteraemia, respectively, with an increasing frequency of K20, K47, and K64 observed in recent years. entB and wabG predominated across all isolates and serotypes; the least frequent virulence gene was htrA. Most isolates were susceptible to carbapenems, amikacin, tigecycline, and colistin, with the exception of K20, K47, and K64 where resistance was widespread. The highest average number of virulence genes was observed in K1, followed by K2, K20, and K5 isolates, which suggest their contribution to the high virulence of K1. In conclusion, we found that the distribution of antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene profiles, and capsular types of K. pneumoniae over two decades were associated with their clinical source.
SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spreads among humans via social networks, with social mixing and network characteristics potentially facilitating transmission. However, limited data on topological structural features has hindered in-depth studies. Existing research is based on snapshot analyses, preventing temporal investigations of network changes. Comparing network characteristics over time offers additional insights into transmission dynamics. We examined confirmed COVID-19 patients from an eastern Chinese province, analyzing social mixing and network characteristics using transmission network topology before and after widespread interventions. Between the two time periods, the percentage of singleton networks increased from 38.9$ \% $ to 62.8$ \% $$ (p<0.001) $; the average shortest path length decreased from 1.53 to 1.14 $ (p<0.001) $; the average betweenness reduced from 0.65 to 0.11$ (p<0.001) $; the average cluster size dropped from 4.05 to 2.72 $ (p=0.004) $; and the out-degree had a slight but nonsignificant decline from 0.75 to 0.63 $ (p=0.099). $ Results show that nonpharmaceutical interventions effectively disrupted transmission networks, preventing further disease spread. Additionally, we found that the networks’ dynamic structure provided more information than solely examining infection curves after applying descriptive and agent-based modeling approaches. In summary, we investigated social mixing and network characteristics of COVID-19 patients during different pandemic stages, revealing transmission network heterogeneities.
This paper studies the synchronization control of the blanket remote maintenance robot (BRMR) of the China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). First, the general state space mathematical model of BRMR was established by using a physical-based method. Second, based on the receding horizon optimization of model predictive control (MPC) and cross-coupling error reduction in cross-coupling control (CCC), the innovative MPC-CCC controller was proposed to realize the single-system and multisystem error convergence and high accuracy transportation of blanket through the high accuracy synchronization control of BRMR. Third, to verify the control effectiveness of the MPC-CCC controller, two types of simulations and experiments were implied compared with the original proportional-integral (PI) controller in Mover. Results showed that simulation and experiments were highly consistent. It is found that the use of an MPC-CCC controller can result in up to a 70% reduction in displacement error and up to a 59% reduction in synchronization error compared to the PI controller. And the accuracy of the MPC-CCC controller satisfies the real requirement of the maintenance process of the blanket. This work provides the theoretical basis and practical experience for the highly stable, safe, and efficient maintenance of blankets in the future.
To identify the optimal weight gain at the end of the second trimester.
This was a population-based cohort study from the antenatal care system in Tianjin, China. We calculated gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the weight measured in the first trimester and the end of the second trimester. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to model the possible non-linear relationships between GWG and adverse outcomes. The optimal GWG was defined as the value of the lowest risk. Non-inferiority margins and the shape of the spline curves identified the recommended ranges in Chinese-specific BMI categories.
Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Cohort.
Singleton pregnant women aged 18–45 years.
In total, 69 859 pregnant women were included. Adverse outcome (including stillbirth, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, small and large for gestational age) was significantly associated with GWG at the end of the second trimester. The risk score was non-linearly correlated with GWG in the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. GWG at the end of the second trimester should not be < 7 kg in underweight group. For most normal-weight women, a GWG of about 8 kg is optimal. Pregnant women who are overweight should not have a GWG of more than 9 kg. We advised women with overweight and obesity to keep positive growth of GWG (> 0 kg) in the first and second trimesters.
According to the comprehensive adverse maternal and infant outcomes, we recommend the optimal GWG at the end of the second trimester. This study may provide a considerable reference for weight management.
Despite rising incidences of global disasters, basic principles of disaster medicine training are barely taught in Singapore’s 3 medical schools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current levels of emergency preparedness, attitudes, and perceptions of disaster medicine education among medical students in Singapore.
The Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire (EPIQ) was provided to enrolled medical students in Singapore by means of an online form, from March 6, 2020, to February 20, 2021. A total of 635 (25.7%) responses were collated and analyzed.
Mean score for overall familiarity was low, at 1.50 ± 0.74, on a Likert scale of 1 for not familiar to 5 for very familiar. A total of 90.6% of students think that disaster medicine is an important facet of the curriculum, and 93.1% agree that training should be provided for medical students. Although 77.3% of respondents believe that they are unable to contribute to a disaster scenario currently, 92.8% believe that they will be able to contribute with formal training.
Despite low levels of emergency preparedness knowledge, the majority of medical students in Singapore are keen for adaptation of disaster medicine into the current curriculum to be able to contribute more effectively. This can arm future health-care professionals with the confidence to respond to any potential emergency.
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
Childhood is a crucial neurodevelopmental period. We investigated whether childhood reading for pleasure (RfP) was related to young adolescent assessments of cognition, mental health, and brain structure.
We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal study in a large-scale US national cohort (10 000 + young adolescents), using the well-established linear mixed model and structural equation methods for twin study, longitudinal and mediation analyses. A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis for potential causal inference was also performed. Important factors including socio-economic status were controlled.
Early-initiated long-standing childhood RfP (early RfP) was highly positively correlated with performance on cognitive tests and significantly negatively correlated with mental health problem scores of young adolescents. These participants with higher early RfP scores exhibited moderately larger total brain cortical areas and volumes, with increased regions including the temporal, frontal, insula, supramarginal; left angular, para-hippocampal; right middle-occipital, anterior-cingulate, orbital areas; and subcortical ventral-diencephalon and thalamus. These brain structures were significantly related to their cognitive and mental health scores, and displayed significant mediation effects. Early RfP was longitudinally associated with higher crystallized cognition and lower attention symptoms at follow-up. Approximately 12 h/week of youth regular RfP was cognitively optimal. We further observed a moderately significant heritability of early RfP, with considerable contribution from environments. MR analysis revealed beneficial causal associations of early RfP with adult cognitive performance and left superior temporal structure.
These findings, for the first time, revealed the important relationships of early RfP with subsequent brain and cognitive development and mental well-being.