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Typical ophiolitic rock assemblages such as siliciclastic rocks, basalts and gabbros, together with the subduction-related intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks, are newly discovered in the Tongjiang-Fuyuan area of the Heilongjiang Provence, NE China. To determine the formation age and genesis of the mafic rocks (basalts and gabbros) and intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks (granodiorites) in the area, as well as their geodynamic settings, the whole-rock geochemical analysis and zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating were carried out. Zircon U-Pb results suggest that the granodiorites are 93–95 Ma and gabbro is 95 Ma, respectively. Geochemical results show that the gabbros and basalts exhibit characteristics of ocean island basalt (OIB) affinity and are typically related to having originated from mantle plumes. While the granodiorites show the nature of the island-arc magmatic rocks and may originate from the lower crust. Based on the coeval igneous rock associations and regional tectonic evolution, we conclude that the late Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the Tongjiang-Fuyuan area are the product of continuous subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific plate and reflect the subduction rollback process of the Palaeo-Pacific plate.
This study assesses the difference in professional attitudes among medical students, both before and after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and identifies the determinants closely associated with it, while providing precise and scientific evidence for implementing precision education on such professional attitudes.
A pre-post-like study was conducted among medical students in 31 provinces in mainland China, from March 23, to April 19, 2021.
The proportion of medical students whose professional attitudes were disturbed after the COVID-19 pandemic, was significantly lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic (χ2 = 15.6216; P < 0.0001). Compared with the “undisturbed -undisturbed” group, the “undisturbed-disturbed” group showed that there was a 1.664-fold risk of professional attitudes disturbed as grade increased, 3.269-fold risk when others suggested they choose a medical career rather than their own desire, and 7.557-fold risk for students with COVID-19 in their family, relatives, or friends; while the “disturbed-undisturbed” group showed that students with internship experience for professional attitudes strengthened was 2.933-fold than those without internship experience.
The professional attitudes of medical students have been strengthened during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results provide evidence of the importance of education on professional attitudes among medical students during public health emergencies.
Our previous studies have suggested that spastin, which aggregates on spindle microtubules in oocytes, may promote the assembly of mouse oocyte spindles by cutting microtubules. This action may be related to CRMP5, as knocking down CRMP5 results in reduced spindle microtubule density and maturation defects in oocytes. In this study, we found that, after knocking down CRMP5 in oocytes, spastin distribution shifted from the spindle to the spindle poles and errors in microtubule–kinetochore attachment appeared in oocyte spindles. However, CRMP5 did not interact with the other two microtubule-severing proteins, katanin-like-1 (KATNAL1) and fidgetin-like-1 (FIGNL1), which aggregate at the spindle poles. We speculate that, in oocytes, due to the reduction of spastin distribution on chromosomes after knocking down CRMP5, microtubule–kinetochore errors cannot be corrected through severing, resulting in meiotic division abnormalities and maturation defects in oocytes. This finding provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of spastin in oocytes and important opportunities for the study of meiotic division mechanisms.
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between dietary inflammatory potential and liver cancer to provide evidence regarding scientific dietary health education.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify case–control or cohort studies that involved dietary inflammation index (DII)/empirical dietary inflammation pattern (EDIP) and liver cancer in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases. Using a combination of DII/EDIP and liver cancer as the search terms, the associations between DII/EDIP and liver cancer were then assessed.
Three case–control studies and two cohort studies were brought into the meta-analysis, with 225 713 enrolled participants.
Meta-analysis of categorical variables showed that DII/EDIP in the highest category increased the risk of liver cancer compared to DII/EDIP in the lowest category (relative risk (RR) = 2·35; 95 % CI 1·77, 3·13; P = 0·000) and with low heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 40·8 %, P = 0·119). Meta-analysis of continuous variables showed that significant positive association between liver cancer and DII/EDIP scores (RR = 1·24; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·40; P = 0·001), and no heterogeneity (I² = 0·0 %, P = 0·471). Stratified according to the study design, there was a significant positive association between liver cancer and DII/EDIP scores in both cohort studies (RR = 2·16; 95 % CI 1·51, 3·07; P = 0·000) and case–control studies (RR = 2·75; 95 % CI 1·71, 4·41; P = 0·000).
The higher the DII/EDIP score, the higher the risk of liver cancer. This finding may have prominent implications for the general population.
Anxiety disorder is one of the common mental health problems in college students, which hurts their study, work, and life. Comprehensive psychological crisis intervention is a complete psychological treatment method expected to be essential in treating anxiety disorders in college students.
Subjects and Methods
One hundred college students with anxiety disorder were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received comprehensive psychological crisis intervention treatment and comprehensive intervention measures such as psychological assistance, cognitive behavioral therapy, and intimate relationship training. The control group received traditional psychotherapy, including counseling and medication. The Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and other assessment tools were used to carry out psychological measurements of the two groups of patients before, after, and at the follow-up point, respectively. The collected information was statistically analyzed by SPSS23.0 software.
After the comprehensive psychological crisis intervention treatment, the anxiety and depression levels of the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.001), and life satisfaction was significantly increased (P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed obvious advantages in curative effect.
Comprehensive psychological crisis intervention has shown remarkable efficacy in college students with anxiety disorders, can effectively reduce anxiety and depression, and improves the life satisfaction of patients. This approach may become an essential option for treating anxiety disorders in college students.
2021 Humanities and Social Sciences Research Project for Basic Research Business Expenses of Provincial Undergraduate Universities in Heilongjiang Province. No. 2021- kyywf-0384.
Stress and depression have a reciprocal relationship, but the neural underpinnings of this reciprocity are unclear. We investigated neuroimaging phenotypes that facilitate the reciprocity between stress and depressive symptoms.
In total, 22 195 participants (52.0% females) from the population-based UK Biobank study completed two visits (initial visit: 2006–2010, age = 55.0 ± 7.5 [40–70] years; second visit: 2014–2019; age = 62.7 ± 7.5 [44–80] years). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between self-report stressful life events (SLEs) and depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional data were used to examine the overlap between neuroimaging correlates of SLEs and depressive symptoms on the second visit among 138 multimodal imaging phenotypes.
Longitudinal data were consistent with significant bidirectional causal relationship between SLEs and depressive symptoms. In cross-sectional analyses, SLEs were significantly associated with lower bilateral nucleus accumbal volume and lower fractional anisotropy of the forceps major. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with extensive white matter hyperintensities, thinner cortex, lower subcortical volume, and white matter microstructural deficits, mainly in corticostriatal-limbic structures. Lower bilateral nucleus accumbal volume were the only imaging phenotypes with overlapping effects of depressive symptoms and SLEs (B = −0.032 to −0.023, p = 0.006–0.034). Depressive symptoms and SLEs significantly partially mediated the effects of each other on left and right nucleus accumbens volume (proportion of effects mediated = 12.7–14.3%, p < 0.001−p = 0.008). For the left nucleus accumbens, post-hoc seed-based analysis showed lower resting-state functional connectivity with the left orbitofrontal cortex (cluster size = 83 voxels, p = 5.4 × 10−5) in participants with high v. no SLEs.
The nucleus accumbens may play a key role in the reciprocity between stress and depressive symptoms.
Rodents and shrews are major reservoirs of various pathogens that are related to zoonotic infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate co-infections of zoonotic pathogens in rodents and shrews trapped in four provinces of China. We sampled different rodent and shrew communities within and around human settlements in four provinces of China and characterised several important zoonotic viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by PCR methods and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 864 rodents and shrews belonging to 24 and 13 species from RODENTIA and EULIPOTYPHLA orders were captured, respectively. For viral pathogens, two species of hantavirus (Hantaan orthohantavirus and Caobang orthohantavirus) were identified in 3.47% of rodents and shrews. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp., Anaplasmataceae, Babesia spp., Leptospira spp., Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella burnetii were 31.25%, 8.91%, 4.17%, 3.94%, 3.59%, 3.47%, and 0.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the highest co-infection status of three pathogens was observed among Bartonella spp., Leptospira spp., and Anaplasmataceae with a co-infection rate of 0.46%. Our results suggested that species distribution and co-infections of zoonotic pathogens were prevalent in rodents and shrews, highlighting the necessity of active surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals in wider regions.
With persistent incidence, incomplete vaccination rates, confounding respiratory illnesses, and few therapeutic interventions available, COVID-19 continues to be a burden on the pediatric population. During a surge, it is difficult for hospitals to direct limited healthcare resources effectively. While the overwhelming majority of pediatric infections are mild, there have been life-threatening exceptions that illuminated the need to proactively identify pediatric patients at risk of severe COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases. However, a nationwide capability for developing validated computational tools to identify pediatric patients at risk using real-world data does not exist.
HHS ASPR BARDA sought, through the power of competition in a challenge, to create computational models to address two clinically important questions using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative: (1) Of pediatric patients who test positive for COVID-19 in an outpatient setting, who are at risk for hospitalization? (2) Of pediatric patients who test positive for COVID-19 and are hospitalized, who are at risk for needing mechanical ventilation or cardiovascular interventions?
This challenge was the first, multi-agency, coordinated computational challenge carried out by the federal government as a response to a public health emergency. Fifty-five computational models were evaluated across both tasks and two winners and three honorable mentions were selected.
This challenge serves as a framework for how the government, research communities, and large data repositories can be brought together to source solutions when resources are strapped during a pandemic.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
Post-acceleration of protons in helical coil targets driven by intense, ultrashort laser pulses can enhance ion energy by utilizing the transient current from the targets’ self-discharge. The acceleration length of protons can exceed a few millimeters, and the acceleration gradient is of the order of GeV/m. How to ensure the synchronization between the accelerating electric field and the protons is a crucial problem for efficient post-acceleration. In this paper, we study how the electric field mismatch induced by current dispersion affects the synchronous acceleration of protons. We propose a scheme using a two-stage helical coil to control the current dispersion. With optimized parameters, the energy gain of protons is increased by four times. Proton energy is expected to reach 45 MeV using a hundreds-of-terawatts laser, or more than 100 MeV using a petawatt laser, by controlling the current dispersion.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
While implicit distraction could ameliorate negative feelings in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD), it remains unclear whether patients could benefit from explicit, voluntary distraction. Meanwhile, though the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is established as a crucial brain region involved in attentional control, the causal relationship between the DLPFC and voluntary distraction is unexplored in patients.
Combing explicit distraction and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), this study investigated whether TMS-activated DLPFC facilitates voluntary distraction in MDD patients. Eighty patients diagnosed with current MDD underwent either active (n = 40) or sham (n = 40) TMS sessions, followed by receiving negative social feedback from other patients, during which they were requied to use distraction strategy to down-regulate their painful feelings. Electroencephalogram was recorded during the task.
Both the subjective emotional rating and the amplitude of late positive potential showed that depressed patients successfully down-regulate their negative emotions via voluntary distraction, and the TMS-activated left DLPFC produced a larger benefit of emotion regulation compared to the sham TMS group. Results also revealed that while emotion regulation effect was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in the sham TMS group, this correlation was largely diminished when patients' left DLPFC was activated by TMS during the voluntary distraction.
These findings demonstrated that distraction is valuable for emotion regulation in MDD patients and they could be beneficial in voluntary distraction by activating their left DLPFC using neural modulation techniques. This study has valuable implications for clinical treatement of emotional dysregulation in MDD patients.
For a quadratic Markov branching process (QMBP), we show that the decay parameter is equal to the first eigenvalue of a Sturm–Liouville operator associated with the partial differential equation that the generating function of the transition probability satisfies. The proof is based on the spectral properties of the Sturm–Liouville operator. Both the upper and lower bounds of the decay parameter are given explicitly by means of a version of Hardy’s inequality. Two examples are provided to illustrate our results. The important quantity, the Hardy index, which is closely linked to the decay parameter of the QMBP, is deeply investigated and estimated.
The Qieganbulake deposit associated with a mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex in the Kuluketage block is not only the world’s second-largest vermiculite deposit, but also a medium-size carbonatite-related phosphate deposit. Field observations, radiometric dating results and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes reveal that the parental magmas of the carbonatite and mafic–ultramafic rocks are cogenetic and formed synchronously at c. 810 Ma. Geochemical characteristics and Sr–Nd–Hf–S isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70581–0.70710; ϵNd(t) = −0.20 to −11.80; ϵHf(t) = −7.5 to −10.3; δ34S = +0.7 ‰ to +3.0 ‰ (some sulfides with high δ34S values (+3.2 to +6.6) were formed by late hydrothermal sulfur)), in combination with mineral compositions and previous research, strongly indicate that the Qieganbulake mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex formed via extensive crystal fractionation/cumulation and liquid immiscibility of a carbonated tholeiitic magma, possibly derived from partial melting of an enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously modified by slab-released fluids and sediment input in a continental rift setting. The coupled enriched Sr–Nd isotopic signatures, in combination with previous research, suggest that the enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle could have been metasomatized by asthenospheric mantle melts to different degrees. The Qieganbulake carbonatite-related phosphate ores were the products of normal fractional crystallization/cumulation of P–Fe3+ complex enriched carbonatite magma in high oxygen fugacity conditions, which was generated by liquid immiscibility of CO2–Fe–Ti–P-rich residual magma undergoing high differentiation.
In 2016, an outbreak of paratyphoid fever occurred in 40 cases at Qingyang town, in China. A case-control study was carried out to determine the source of this outbreak. Case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of this outbreak. The cases were identified as patients with isolation of S. Paratyphi, controls were confirmed cases’ healthy classmates, colleagues or neighbors and matched by age (±5 y) and gender. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to source tracking. Totally, 40 cases were reported: 24 cases were students, and 20 (20/24) of them were Qingyang High School students. For the case-control study, consuming Chinese egg pancakes was detected as a risk factor (OR1:1 = 5.000; 95% CI: 1.710-14.640), and hand-washing before meals was protective behavior compared with seldom hand-washing (OR1:1 = 23.256; 95% CI: 2.451-200.000). S. Paratyphi was cultured from a well water sample used for washing contents of the pancakes. Isolates from well water and paratyphoid cases showed the same PFGE patterns. Contaminated well water and Chinese egg pancakes were likely source and vehicle of this outbreak. Health education, especially handwashing, and food safety supervision should be promoted particularly in schools.
The low maturation rate of oocytes is an important reason for female infertility and failure of assisted pregnancy. The germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) is a landmark event of oocyte maturation. In our previous studies, we found that zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) was strongly concentrated in the nuclear region of germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and interacted with aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) and lamin A to promote GVBD. In the current study, we found that lamin A is mainly concentrated in the nuclear membrane. When ZP3 is knocked down, lamin A will be partially transferred to the nucleus of oocytes. The prelamin A is increased in both the nuclear membrane and nucleus, while phosphorylated lamin A (p-lamin A) is significantly reduced. AIPL1 was also proved to accumulate in the GV region of oocytes, and ZP3 deletion can significantly inhibit the aggregation of AIPL1 in the nuclear region. Similar to ZP3 knockdown, the absence of AIPL1 resulted in a decrease in the occurrence of GVBD, an increase in the amount of prelamin A, and a significant decrease in p-lamin A in oocytes developed in vitro. Finally, we propose the hypothesis that ZP3 can stabilize farnesylated prelamin A on the nuclear membrane of AIPL1, and promote its further processing into mature lamin A, therefore promoting the occurrence of GVBD. This study may be an important supplement for the mechanism of oocyte meiotic resumption and provide new diagnostic targets and treatment clues for infertility patients with oocyte maturation disorder.
In China, celebrities can dominate public discourse and shape popular culture, but they are under the state's close gaze. Recent studies have revealed how the state disciplines and co-opts celebrities to promote patriotism, foster traditional values and spread political propaganda. However, how do celebrities adapt to the changing political environment? Focusing on political signalling on the social media platform Sina Weibo, we analyse a novel dataset and find that the vast majority of top celebrities repost from official accounts of government agencies and state media outlets, though there are variations. Younger celebrities with more followers tend to repost from official accounts more often. Celebrities from Taiwan tend to repost less than those from the mainland and Hong Kong, despite being subject to the same rules. However, the frequent political signalling by the most influential celebrities among younger generations suggests that the state has co-opted celebrity influence on social media to broadly promote its political objectives.
The identification of herbicide tolerance is essential for effective chemical weed control. According to whole-plant dose–response assays, none of 29 pond lovegrass [Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.] populations were sensitive to penoxsulam. The effective dose values of penoxsulam causing 50% inhibition of fresh weight (GR50: 105.14 to 148.78 g ai ha−1) in E. japonica populations were much higher than the label rate of penoxsulam (15 to 30 g ai ha−1) in the field. This confirmed that E. japonica was tolerant to penoxsulam. Eragrostis japonica populations showed 52.83- to 74.76-fold higher tolerance to penoxsulam than susceptible barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.]. The mechanisms of tolerance to penoxsulam in E. japonica were also identified. In vitro activity assays revealed that the penoxsulam concentration required to inhibit 50% of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity (IC50) was 12.27-fold higher in E. japonica than in E. crus-galli. However, differences in the ALS gene, previously found to endow target-site resistance in weeds, were not detected in the sequences obtained. Additionally, the expression level of genes encoding ALS in E. japonica was approximately 2-fold higher than in E. crus-galli after penoxsulam treatment. Furthermore, penoxsulam tolerance can be significantly reversed by three cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CytP450) inhibitors (1-aminobenzotriazole, piperonyl butoxide, and malathion), and the activity of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase toward penoxsulam in E. japonica increased significantly (approximately 7-fold higher) compared with that of treated E. crus-galli. Taken together, these results indicate that lower ALS sensitivity, relatively higher ALS expression levels, and stronger metabolism of CytP450s combined to bring about penoxsulam tolerance in E. japonica.
Biped robots with dynamic motion control have shown strong robustness in complex environments. However, many motion planning methods rely on models, which have difficulty dynamically modifying the walking cycle, height, and other gait parameters to cope with environmental changes. In this study, a heuristic model-free gait template planning method with dynamic motion control is proposed. The gait trajectory can be generated by inputting the desired speed, walking cycle, and support height without a model. Then, the stable walking of the biped robot can be realized by foothold adjustment and whole-body dynamics model control. The gait template can be changed in real time to achieve gait flexibility of the biped robot. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by simulations and experiments of the biped robot BHR-B2. The research presented here helps improve the gait transition ability of biped robots in dynamic locomotion.