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Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
An amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular linkage map with a relatively high density for location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the quantitative traits of silkworm (Bombyx mori) cocoons, was constructed using 91 individuals of the F2 generation. Among the 692 effective loci, 550 were allocated to subgroups a and b, of which 21 linkage groups in subgroup a had 233 molecular markers and 28 linkage groups in subgroup b had 317 markers. The number of markers on each linkage group in subgroups a and b ranged from 4 to 43 and 3 to 35, respectively. The total length of linkage groups for subgroup a was 1868.10 cM, and 2677.50 cM for subgroup b. The length of linkage group varied from 22.3 to 424.3 cM in subgroup a and from 2.4 to 366.5 cM in subgroup b. The average variation in the distance between markers was 3.39–17.43 cM in subgroup a and 0.8–26.96 cM in subgroup b. The average distance between the markers was 8.81 cM in subgroup a and 9.26 cM in subgroup b. There were 14 linkage groups, with an average distance below 10 cM, in subgroup a and 18 linkage groups in subgroup b. There were seven linkage groups with an average distance between 10 and 20 cM in subgroup a and ten linkage groups in subgroup b. Each linkage group in subgroup a had 11.1 loci on average, while there were 11.31 loci on each linkage group on average in subgroup b. The mean length for linkage groups in subgroups a and b was 89 and 95.6 cM, respectively. The total average length for both a and b subgroups was 2272.8, and 9.06 cM for the average marker distance, fulfilling the basic known requirements for locating QTLs.
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