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Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the etiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as well as 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8.96 years (interquartile range 8.29 to 9.53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; P<0.001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HRs for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.84 (0.77 to 0.92), and 0.71 (0.62 to 0.80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (P for interaction=0.078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14% to 84% through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
Almost all hospitals are equipped with air-conditioning systems to provide a comfortable environment for patients and staff. However, the accumulation of dust and moisture within these systems increases the risk of transmission of microbes and have on occasion been associated with outbreaks of infection. Nevertheless, the impact of air-conditioning on the transmission of microorganisms leading to infection remains largely uncertain. We conducted a scoping review to screen systematically the evidence for such an association in the face of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were explored for relevant studies addressing microbial contamination of the air, their transmission and association with infectious diseases. The review process yielded 21 publications, 17 of which were cross-sectional studies, three were cohort studies and one case−control study. Our analysis showed that, compared with naturally ventilated areas, microbial loads were significantly lower in air-conditioned areas, but the incidence of infections increased if not properly managed. The use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration not only decreased transmission of airborne bioaerosols and various microorganisms, but also reduced the risk of infections. By contrast, contaminated air-conditioning systems in hospital rooms were associated with a higher risk of patient infection. Cleaning and maintenance of such systems to recommended standards should be performed regularly and where appropriate, the installation of HEPA filters can effectively mitigate microbial contamination in the public areas of hospitals.
When a mixture of viscous oil and non-colloidal particles displaces air between two parallel plates, the shear-induced migration of particles leads to the gradual accumulation of particles on the advancing oil–air interface. This particle accumulation results in the fingering of an otherwise stable fluid–fluid interface. While previous works have focused on the resultant instability, one unexplored yet striking feature of the experiments is the self-similarity in the concentration profile of the accumulating particles. In this paper, we rationalise this self-similar behaviour by deriving a depth-averaged particle transport equation based on the suspension balance model, following the theoretical framework of Ramachandran (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 734, 2013, pp. 219–252). The solutions to the particle transport equation are shown to be self-similar with slight deviations, and in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the shear-induced migration, the advancing fluid–fluid interface and Taylor dispersion yield the self-similar and gradual accumulation of particles.
Pneumatic launch systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), including mechanical and pneumatic systems, are complex and non-linear. They are subjected to system parameters during launch, which leads to difficulty in engineering research analysis. For example, the mismatch between the UAV parameters and the parameter design indices of the launch system as well as the unclear design indices of the launching speed and overload of UAVs have a great impact on launch safety. Considering this situation, some studies are presented in this paper. Taking the pneumatic launch system as a research object, a pneumatic launcher dynamic simulation model is built based on co-simulation considering the coupling characteristics of the mechanical structure and transmission system. Its accuracy was verified by laboratory test results. Based on this model, the paper shows the effects of the key parameters, including the mass of the UAV, cylinder volume, pressure and moment of inertia of the pulley block, on the performance of the dynamic characteristics of the launch process. Then, a method for matching the parameter characteristics between the UAV and launch system based on batch simulation is proposed. The set of matching parameter values of the UAV and launch system that satisfy the launch take-off safety criteria are calculated. Finally, the influence of the system parameters of the launch process on the launch performance was analysed in detail, and the design optimised. Meaningful conclusions were obtained. The analysis method and its results can provide a reference for engineering and theoretical research and development of pneumatic launch systems.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute hemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60.4 ± 12.83 years; 66.8% male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (p = 0.012 and < 0.001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.28-4.17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
Three-scalar subgrid-scale (SGS) mixing in turbulent coaxial jets is investigated experimentally. The flow consists of a centre jet, an annulus and a co-flow. The SGS mixing process and its dependence on the velocity and length scale ratios of the annulus flow to the centre jet are investigated. For small SGS scalar variance the scalars are well mixed and the initial three-scalar mixing configuration is lost. For large SGS variance, the scalars are highly segregated with a bimodal scalar filtered joint density function (f.j.d.f.) at a range of radial locations. Two competing factors, the SGS variance and the scalar length scale, play an important role for the bimodal f.j.d.f. For the higher velocity ratio cases, the peak value of the SGS variance is higher, thereby resulting in stronger bimodality. For the lower velocity ratio cases, the wider mean SGS variance profiles and the smaller scalar length scale cause bimodal f.j.d.f.s over a wider range of physical locations. The scalar dissipation rate structures have similarities to those of mixture fraction and temperature in turbulent non-premixed/partially premixed flames. The observed SGS mixing characteristics present a challenging test for SGS mixing models as well as provides an understanding of the physics for developing improved models. The results also provide a basis for investigating multiscalar SGS mixing in turbulent reactive flows.
This paper reports a new phenomenon in the near-free-surface region of open channel flows (OCFs): namely that higher relative population densities of spanwise vortices are observed than are seen at equivalent positions in turbulent boundary layers. The presence of additional retrograde spanwise vortices in OCFs throughout the region $y/h>0.2$ (where $y$ is the distance to the wall and $h$ is the water depth) prompts us to re-examine the wall-normal extent that the free-surface effect can reach, which is classically expected to be limited within the surface and blockage layers. Finally, possible mechanisms for the phenomenon of additional spanwise vortices in OCFs are provided.
It has long been hypothesized that personality plays a causative role in incidence and outcome of breast cancer (BC), but epidemiological evidence of association between personality and BC is inconsistent.
We used two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the impact of personality on the risk and survival of BC. In total, 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were utilized as instruments of neuroticism from a large-scale Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), and five SNPs were utilized as instruments of extraversion from Genetic of Personality Consortium and 23andMe. Genetic association with the risk and survival of overall and individual subtype BC were obtained from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Neuroticism is significantly associated with the risk of overall BC [odds ratio (OR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.11; p = 0.015] and the risk of luminal A BC (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.03–1.16; p = 0.004). Extraversion is not associated with the risk of BC. None of neuroticism or extraversion is associated with the survival of BC.
Neuroticism was associated with a modest increased risk of BC and particularly luminal A BC.
A ship's perception of risk is an important basis for collision avoidance. To improve such perception, several risk measurement parameters on the ship domain are determined, including the approach factor, the time to domain violation (TDV) and the possible collision domain. Then, a risk hierarchy prewarning (RHP) model based on the violation detection of a ship domain is proposed, in which a two-level alarm scheme is adopted accordingly. A low-intensity alarm will be activated by reaching the minimum approach factor and the TDV threshold, and a high-intensity alarm will be activated by the factor of the possible collision domain and the TDV threshold. Subsequently, a novel guard zone in ARPA radar utilising the RHP model has been developed to establish a ship's risk perception system for officers on watch at sea. The model proposed in this paper can not only enhance the veracity of risk assessment around our own ship, but also be used as a decision support system for collision avoidance.
As a new management reform adapting the development of the times, electronic human resource management (E-HRM) covers all possible integration mechanisms and contents between HRM and Information Technologies. E-HRM promotes employees' subject status with the network characteristics of openness and cooperation. Taking the theory of work adjustment as the instruction, this research studies the adaptive process induced by reconstructing the sense of matching when employees experience the reform, along with the influence of E-HRM on employee's initiative behavior from the perspective of job crafting. In total, 706 employees and their supervisors were investigated with matched questionnaire survey. The results show that: (1) E-HRM can stimulate employees' personal initiative behavior; (2) task crating, relational crafting and cognitive crafting as three dimensions of employees' job crafting, mediate the effect of E-HRM on personal initiative behavior and (3) the self-development motivation of employees' internet use plays a positive moderating role, steering self-oriented job crafting in the positive direction which conforms to the organizations' expectation.
The flexibility of the free-floating flexible space manipulator system’s link and joint may affect the control accuracy and cause vibrations. We studied the dynamics modeling, joint trajectory tracking control, and vibration suppressing problem of free-floating flexible-link and flexible-joints space manipulator system with external interference and uncertain parameter. The system’s dynamic equations are established using linear momentum conservation, angular momentum conservation, assumed mode method, and Lagrange equation. Then, the system’s singular perturbation model is established, and a hybrid control is presented. For the slow subsystem, a robust fuzzy sliding mode control is proposed to realize the joint desired trajectory tracking. For the fast subsystem, a speed difference feedback control and a linear-quadratic optimal control are designed to suppress the vibration caused by the flexible joints and the flexible link separately. The simulation comparison experiments under different conditions are taken. The simulate results demonstrate the proposed hybrid control’s validity.
This paper presents a method to solve the kinematics of a rigid-flexible and variable-diameter continuous manipulator. The multi-segment underwater manipulator is driven by McKibben water hydraulic artificial muscle (WHAM). Considering the effect of elasticity and friction, we optimized the static mathematical model of WHAM. The kinematic model of the manipulator with load is established based on the hypothesis of piecewise constant curvature (PCC). We developed an optimization algorithm to calculate the length of the WHAMs according to the principle of minimum strain energy and obtain the configuration space parameters of the kinematic model. Based on the infinitesimal method, the homogeneous transformation matrices of the variable-diameter bending sections are computed, and the terminal position and attitude are obtained. In this paper, we studied the working space of the manipulator by quantitative analysis of the impact factors including pressure and load. A deep neural network (DNN) with six hidden layers is designed to solve inverse kinematics. The forward kinematic results are used to train and test the DNN, and the correlation coefficient between the output and target samples reaches 0.945. We carried out an underwater experiment and verified the effectiveness of the kinematic modeling and solution method.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.