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Background: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) observed increased mortality among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) starting in 2017. In this study, we compared NICU patients with CLABSIs before and after 2017, and quantified the impact of epidemiological factors on 30-day survival. Methods: We included 1,276 NICU patients from 8–16 participating CNISP hospitals from the pre-2017 period (2009–2016) and the post-2017 period (2017–2022) using standardized definitions and questionnaires. We used Cox regression modeling to assess the impact of age at date of positive culture, sex, birthweight, CLABSI microorganism, region of the country, and surveillance period (before 2017 vs after 2017) on time to 30-day all-cause mortality from date of positive culture. Gestational age was not available for this analysis. We reported model outputs as hazard ratios with 95% CIs. Results: In total, 769 (60%) NICU CLABSIs were reported in the pre-2017 period and 507 (40%) in the post-2017 period. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 8% (n = 100 of 1,276) overall, and significantly higher after 2017 (12%, n = 61 of 507) than before 2017 (5%, n = 39 of 769) (P < .001).
During the post-2017 period, cases were significantly younger: 16 days (IQR, 9–33) versus 21 days (IQR, 11–49) (P = .002). Median days from ICU admission to infection were shorter: 14 (IQR, 8–31) versus 19 (IQR, 10–41) (P < .001). More gram-negative CLABSIs were identified (29% vs 24%; P = .040) and fewer gram-positive CLABSIs were identified (64% vs 72%; P = .006) compared to the pre-2017 period. Mortality was higher in CLABSIs caused by gram-negative bacteria (15%, n = 50 of 328) than gram-positive bacteria (4.4%, n = 39 of 877) (P < .001), and mortality was higher in neonates with birthweight <1,000 g (11%, n = 71 of 673) compared to those weighing ≥1,000 g (5%, n = 28 of 560) (P < .001).
Adjusting for all other factors, survival modeling indicated that NICU CLABSIs identified in the post-2017 period had 2.12 (95% CI, 1.23–3.66) times the hazard ratio of 30-day all-cause mortality compared to those before 2017 (P < .006). Those identified with a gram-positive bacterium had a 0.28 hazard ratio (95% CI, 0.12–0.65) of 30-day mortality compared to those with a gram-negative bacterium or fungus (P = .003). In the fully adjusted model, age, sex, and birthweight were not significantly associated with NICU CLABSI survival. Conclusions: NICU patients with CLABSIs had significantly higher all-cause mortality between 2017–2022 compared to 2009–2016, and those who acquired gram-positive–associated CLABSIs had improved survival compared to other organisms. Further work is needed to identify and understand factors driving the increased mortality among NICU CLABSI patients from 2017–2022.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) have rapidly become a global health concern and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality due to limited treatment options. Travel to endemic areas, especially healthcare exposure in these areas, is an important risk factor for acquisition. We describe the evolving epidemiology, molecular features, and outcomes of CPE in Canada through surveillance by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP). Methods: CNISP has conducted surveillance for CPE among inpatients and outpatients of all ages since 2010. Participating acute-care facilities submit eligible specimens to the National Microbiology Laboratory for detection of carbapenemase production, and epidemiological data are collected. Incidence rates per 10,000 patient days are calculated based on inpatient data. Results: In total, 59 CNISP hospitals in 10 Canadian provinces representing 21,789 beds and 6,785,013 patient days participated in this surveillance. From 2010 to 2018, 118 (26%) CPE-infected and 547 (74%) CPE-colonized patients were identified. Few pediatric cases were identified (n = 18). Infection incidence rates remain low and stable (0.02 per 10,000 patient days in 2010 to 0.03 per 10,000 patient days in 2018), and colonization incidence rates have increased by 89% over the surveillance period. Overall, 92% of cases were acquired in a healthcare facility: 61% (n = 278) in a Canadian healthcare facility and 31% (n = 142) in a healthcare facility outside Canada. Of the 8% of cases not acquired in a healthcare facility, 50% (16 of 32) reported travel outside of Canada in the 12 months prior to positive culture. The distribution of carbapenemases varied by region; New Delhi metallo-B-lactamase (NDM) was dominant (59%) in western Canada and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) (66%) in central Canada. NDM and class D carbapenemase OXA-48 were more commonly identified among those who traveled outside of Canada, whereas KPC was more commonly identified among patients without travel. In addition, 30-day all-cause mortality was 14% (25 of 181) among CPE infected patients and 32% (14 of 44) among those with bacteremia. Conclusions: CPE rates remain low in Canada; however, national surveillance data suggest that the increase in CPE in Canada is now being driven by local nosocomial transmission as well as travel and healthcare within endemic areas. Changes in screening practices may have contributed to the increase in colonizations; however, these data are currently lacking and will be collected moving forward. These data highlight the need to intensify surveillance and coordinate infection control measures to prevent further spread of CPE in Canadian acute-care hospitals.
Susy Hota reports contracted research for Finch Therapeutics. Allison McGeer reports funds to her institution for projects for which she is the principal investigator from Pfizer and Merck, as well as consulting fees from the following companies: Sanofi-Pasteur, Sunovion, GSK, Pfizer, and Cidara.
Background: Nosocomial central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. CLABSI surveillance establishes rates for internal and external comparison, identifies risk factors, and allows assessment of interventions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of CLABSIs among adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in CNISP hospitals and evaluate trends over time. Methods: CNISP is a collaborative effort of the Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee, the Association of Medical Microbiologists and Infectious Disease Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Since 1995, CNISP has conducted hospital-based sentinel surveillance of healthcare-associated infections. Overall, 55 CNISP hospitals participated in ≥1 year of CLABSI surveillance. Adult ICUs are categorized as mixed ICUs or cardiovascular (CV) surgery ICUs. Data were collected using standardized definitions and collection forms. Line-day denominators for each participating ICU were collected. Negative-binomial regression was used to test for linear trends, with robust standard errors to account for clustering by hospital. We used the Fisher exact test to compare binary variables. Results: Each year, 28–42 adult ICUs participated in surveillance (27–37 mixed, 6–8 CV surgery). In both mixed ICUs and CV-ICUs, rates remained relatively stable between 2011 and 2018 (Fig. 1). In mixed ICUs, CLABSI rates were 1.0 per 1,000 line days in 2011, and 1.0 per 1,000 line days in 2018 (test for linear trend, P = .66). In CV-ICUs, CLABSI rates were 1.1 per 1,000 line days in 2011 and 0.8 per 1,000 line days in 2018 (P = .19). Case age and gender distributions were consistent across the surveillance period. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 29% in 2011 and in 2018 (annual range, 29%–35%). Between 2011 and 2018, the percentage of isolated microorganisms that were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) decreased from 31% to 18% (P = .004). The percentage of other gram-positive organisms increased from 32% to 37% (P = .34); Bacillus increased from 0% to 4% of isolates and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from 2% to 6%). The gram-negative organisms increased from 21% to 27% (P = .19). Yeast represented 16% in 2011 and 18% in 2018; however, the percentage of yeast that were Candida albicans decreased over time (58% of yeast in 2011 and 30% in 2018; P = .04). Between 2011 and 2018, the most commonly identified species of microorganism in each year were CONS (18% in 2018) and Enterococcus spp (18% in 2018). Conclusions: Ongoing CLABSI surveillance has shown stable rates of CLABSI in adult ICUs from 2011 to 2018. The causative microorganisms have changed, with CONS decreasing from 31% to 18%.
Funding: CNISP is funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Disclosures: Allison McGeer reports funds to her for studies, for which she is the principal investigator, from Pfizer and Merck, as well as consulting fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, Sunovion, GSK, Pfizer, and Cidara.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a urinary tract infection (UTI) management bundle to reduce the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and to improve the management of symptomatic UTIs.
Before-and-after intervention study.
Consecutive sample of inpatients with positive single or mixed-predominant urine cultures collected and reported while admitted to the hospital.
The UTI management bundle consisted of nursing and prescriber education, modification of the reporting of positive urine cultures, and pharmacists’ prospective audit and feedback. A retrospective chart review of consecutive inpatients with positive urinary cultures was performed before and after implementation of the management bundle.
Prior to the implementation of the management bundle, 276 patients were eligible criteria for chart review. Of these 276 patients, 165 (59·8%) were found to have AB; of these 165 patients with AB, 111 (67·3%) were treated with antimicrobials. Moreover, 268 patients met eligibility criteria for postintervention review. Of these 268, 133 patients (49·6%) were found to have AB; of these 133 with AB, 22 (16·5%) were treated with antimicrobials. Thus, a 75·5% reduction of AB treatment was achieved. Educational components of the bundle resulted in a substantial decrease in nonphysician-directed urine sample submission. Adherence to a UTI management algorithm improved substantially in the intervention period, with a notable decrease in fluoroquinolone prescription for empiric UTI treatment.
A UTI management bundle resulted in a dramatic improvement in the management of urinary tract infection, particularly a reduction in the treatment of AB and improved management of symptomatic UTI.
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