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This study examined adherence to dietary guidelines and symptoms of sleep problems (e.g. taking a long time to fall sleep or waking up early) and their associations in a sample of older Australian women (68–73 years of age).
This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Adherence to the dietary guidelines was measured using a validated FFQ and reported as a diet quality score. Symptoms of sleep problems were measured using five questions and a total score was derived. Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the association between these outcomes, adjusted for the potential confounding influence of demographic (i.e. age and marital status) and lifestyle (i.e. physical activity, stress, alcohol intake, sleep medication use) variables.
Respondents from the 1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health who completed Survey 9 were included.
Data from n 7956 older women (mean age ± sd: 70·8 ± 1·5) were included.
70·2 % reported having at least one symptom and 20·5 % had between 3 and 5 symptoms of sleep problems (mean score ± sd: 1·4 ± 1·4, range 0–5). Adherence to dietary guidelines was poor with an average diet quality score of 56·9 ± 10·7 (range 0–100). Better adherence to dietary guidelines was associated with fewer sleep problem symptoms (β: –0·065, 95 % CI: –0·012, –0·005) and remained significant after adjusting for confounding influences.
These findings support the evidence that adherence to dietary guidelines is associated with symptoms of sleep problems in older women.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.
A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March–May 2016 and followed up March–May 2017.
HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.
In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9–53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0–28.6 n = 16) was observed.
HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
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