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The adrenal glands are located at the upper margin of the kidneys about the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra. They are composed of two functional parts, the medulla and the cortex. Disease processes of the adrenal glands that may require surgical intervention result from excessive secretion of one or more of these hormones. A secretory tumour of the medulla is known as a phaeochromocytoma, which produces high circulating concentrations of catecholamines. In the cortex, benign secretory adenomas can produce cortisol resulting in high circulating levels (Cushing's disease) or secrete aldosterone (Conn's syndrome). Prolonged treatment with steroids such as prednisolone can produce secondary adrenocortical insufficiency due to suppression of the normal control mechanisms. This results in profound cardiovascular collapse in the perioperative period. This severe complication can be avoided by supplementation with cortisol.
Bringing together many of the world's leading experts, this volume is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of climate change science, impacts, mitigation, adaptation, and policy. It provides an integrated assessment of research on the key topics that underlie current controversial policy questions. The first part of the book addresses recent topics and findings related to the physical-biological earth system. The next part of the book surveys estimates of the impacts of climate change for different sectors and regions. The third part examines current topics related to mitigation of greenhouse gases and explores the potential roles of various technological options. The last part focuses on policy design under uncertainty. Dealing with the scientific, economic and policy questions at the forefront of the climate change issue, this book will be invaluable for graduate students, researchers and policymakers interested in all aspects of climate change and the issues that surround it.