To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Anxiety disorders are a common focus of clinical concern and certain forms of anxiety may be conceptualized as disorders of emotional learning. Behavior therapies effective in the treatment of anxiety are modeled on extinction training as a means of reducing pathological anxiety. The present understanding of human anxiety has been informed by preclinical research using rodent models to study the acquisition and extinction of fear. Glutamate appears to have a central role in both of these processes. The authors review this literature and discuss novel applications of D-cycloserine, a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, for the treatment of anxiety.
Clinically, the principles of extinction learning form much of the foundation for the most effective behavioral therapies for fear-related anxiety disorders. Within the general class of anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unique in the sense that the precipitating traumatic event may provide the opportunity for acute intervention before the onset of symptoms and before memories have been consolidated. The use of propranolol to treat individuals with posttraumatic stress symptoms was initially described in a case series of physically and sexually abused children with severe symptoms of agitation. An alternative consolidation-blockade approach to the use of propranolol involves the administration of glucocorticoids to trauma-exposed patients. Finally, clinically directed interference with initial memory consolidation through the use of beta-blockers or glucocorticoids following acute trauma exposure could prevent or attenuate the formation of traumatic emotional memory and reduce risk of PTSD.