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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed significant burden on healthcare systems. We compared Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology before and during the pandemic across 71 hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Using an interrupted time series analysis, we showed that CDI rates significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
The Upper Ordovician Sandbian to Katian strata from the East Qilianshan (northeastern Tibet Plateau) bear a graptolite fauna of moderately high diversity. Graptolites from the Amplexograptus maxwelli beds to the Appendispinograptus longispinus Biozone (Sa2–Ka4 intervals) proposed herein include 27 species of 13 genera. This important graptolite fauna is first described herein although it was initially reported in 1963. Most of them occur in the A. longispinus Biozone corresponding to the Dicellograptus complexus to Paraorthograptus pacificus biozones of the Wufeng Formation in the Yangtze region. Alulagraptus new genus is established based on the materials from the East Qiqiaogou section. The endemic species, e.g., Alulagraptus ensiformis (Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963), Dicellograptus sinicus Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963, and Climacograptus? papilio Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963, could indicate that East Qilianshan block was separated from South China.
Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from factors such as sampling, ecological niche, or clade. In addition, studies of extinction risk have focused on benthic invertebrates with less work on planktic taxa. We employed a global set of 1114 planktic graptolite species from the Ordovician to lower Devonian to analyze the predictive power of species’ traits and abiotic factors on extinction risk, combining general linear models (GLMs), partial least-squares regression (PLSR), and permutation tests. Factors included measures of geographic range, sampling, and graptolite-specific factors such as clade, biofacies affiliation, shallow water tolerance, and age cohorts split at the base of the Katian and Rhuddanian stages.
The percent variance in durations explained varied substantially between taxon subsets from 12% to 45%. Overall commonness, the correlated effects of geographic range and sampling, was the strongest, most consistent factor (12–30% variance explained), with clade and age cohort adding up to 18% and other factors <10%. Surprisingly, geographic range alone contributed little explanatory power (<5%). It is likely that this is a consequence of a nonlinear relationship between geographic range and extinction risk, wherein the largest reductions in extinction risk are gained from moderate expansion of small geographic ranges. Thus, even large differences in range size between graptolite species did not lead to a proportionate difference in extinction risk because of the large average ranges of these species. Finally, we emphasize that the common practice of determining the geographic range of taxa from the union of all occurrences over their duration poses a substantial risk of overestimating the geographic scope of the realized ecological niche and, thus, of further conflating sampling effects on observed duration with the biological effects of range size on extinction risk.
Rhabdosomes of Brevigraptus quadrithecatus n. gen., n. sp. (Lasiograptinae, Diplograptacea), from the Upper Ordovician Viola Springs Formation of south-central Oklahoma, comprise four fully developed thecae. The sicula and the first two thecae are fully sclerotized. The ultrastructure of the fusellum is unusually dense but is overlaid by a typical diplograptacean bandaged cortex. The third and fourth thecae consist of clathria covered by a cortical sheet. Lacinia are absent. The cortical sheet comprises bandages deposited in a support dominated pattern that matches expectations of the pterobranch model of peridermal secretion. Lists are fusellar derivatives and exhibit traces of fuselli-like growth increments but no continuous fusellum is present. Lists are strongly thickened with cortical tissue. The fabricational pattern employed in list construction reveals the operation of strong historical constraints during the evolutionary reduction of the fusellum.
The thecal form and list architecture of Brevigraptus quadrithecatus are nearly identical to those of Pipiograptus hesperus Whittington. Brevigraptus quadrithecatus possesses a Pattern G astogeny and exhibits several derived astogenetic features that it shares with P. hesperus and Orthoretiolites hami Whittington. Both thecal and astogenetic similarities suggest the new taxon is a member of the Lasiograptinae, and is closely allied to the aforementioned species.
The thecae of B. quadrithecatus exhibit striking similarity with Dicaulograptus hystrix (Bulman). However, both the details of thecal construction and primordial astogeny differ markedly between these species. The thecal similarities appear to be convergent. Accordingly, D. hystrix is probably not closely allied to the Lasiograptinae.
Late Ordovician rocks of the Qilang and Yingan formations from the Kalpin area in the Tarim region of western Xinjiang, China (Tarim palaeoplate) contain a moderately diverse graptolite fauna. The fauna from the Qilang Formation contains Corynoides calicularis Nicholson, 1867; Dicranograptus clingani resicis Williams and Bruton, 1983; Lasiograptus costatus Lapworth, 1873; Pseudoclimacograptus scharenbergi (Lapworth, 1876); and Glossograptus sp. among other species. This assemblage most likely corresponds to the upper Climacograptus (Climacograptus) bicornis Zone? to lower C. (Diplacanthograptus) lanceolatus Zone of Australia. The Qilang Formation also yields the new taxon, Amplexograptus maxwelli spinousus new subspecies. The overlying Yingan Formation yields a more diverse assemblage that includes Climacograptus (Diplacanthograptus) spiniferus Ruedemann, 1912; C. (D.) lanceolatus VandenBerg, 1990; Orthograptus quadrimucronatus (Hall, 1865); Amplexograptus praetypicalis Riva, 1987; Dicellograptus pumilus Lapworth, 1876; and D. morrisi Hopkinson, 1871. This assemblage most likely corresponds to the Corynoides americanus Zone through the C. (D.) spiniferus Zone of eastern Laurentia, or to the D. clingani Zone of Scotland and central Newfoundland. The presence of a C. (D.) lanceolatus and C. (D.) spiniferus succession in the Yingan Formation also suggests correlation with the Eastonian 1 and 2 of Australasia. The Yingan Formation faunas represent an offshore Pacific Province assemblage dominated by cosmopolitan epipelagic species. The fauna is most similar, both in terms of species composition and relative abundance patterns, to those of the Appalachian Basin. The Yingan faunas differ from the latter in the absence of Laurentian endemic species (except for Amplexograptus praetypicalis), and in the common occurrence of dicellograptids.
In situ colonies of Bulmanicrusta? sp. encrusting the surface of a hardground from the Upper Ordovician Bull Fork Formation provide the first glimpse of the full colony form, habitat, and faunal associates of a crustoid graptolite. Bulmanicrusta? sp. exhibits a runner-type colony form suited to rapid expansion over hard substrates, indicating it was an opportunistic member of the hardground community. This community also included two bryozoans (“Proboscina” and Amplexopora), Cornulites, and crinoids. The Bulmanicrusta? sp. specimens contain numerous graptoblasts (small, thick-walled vesicles) in organic connection with the colony. These objects are located at branch termini and confirm that graptoblasts were not pathological features, but probably were resting cysts produced by the crustoid colony as a normal part of its life cycle. Thus, the presence of graptoblasts supports the interpretation that the Caesar Creek crustoid was adapted to ephemeral or disturbance-prone environments.
The internal morphology of ambocoeliid brachiopods from the Middle Devonian Hamilton Group of western New York indicates a need for several taxonomic revisions. “Ambocoelia” praeumbona is transferred to Emanuella. “Ambocoelia” spinosa and “A.” nana represent Crurispina n. gen. Specimens of species belonging to Crurispina have moderately well developed crural plates, and, accordingly, they are assigned to the subfamily Rhynchospiriferinae. Crural plates are small and obscure but clearly present in Ambocoelia umbonata, the type species of Ambocoelia. Thus, the diagnosis of the subfamily Ambocoeliinae is emended to include species with tiny crural plates.
Ambocoeliid specimens from the Levanna Shale Member of the Skaneateles Formation, formerly referred to Echinocoelia, reveal several elaborate features in the pedicle valve, including an apical plate and a hollow tube supported by a median septum. These specimens represent a new genus and species, Mucroclipeus eliei. The homeomorphy found in the shape and size of these ambocoeliids may be the result of paedomorphosis. Additionally, their pattern of occurrence and minute size suggest that they attained their paedomorphic state through progenesis. The taxa Ambocoelia tuberculata n. sp., Crurispina n. gen., and Mucroclipeus eliei n. gen. and sp. are established.
We have studied the pattern of graptolite species turnover during the latest Ordovician mass extinction based on four continuous Ashgillian to earliest Llandovery sections together with data from more than 30 other published sections. The studied sections represent relatively shallow-water and deeper-water belts in the Yangtze Platform region. Using temporally scaled range data, species diversities and extinction and origination probabilities have been calculated using several analytical methods, including a capture-mark-recapture method. We test the statistical significance of these results and the apparent taxonomic selectivity of extinction and origination via Monte Carlo simulations and contingency analysis.
Graptolite species diversity within the Yangtze Platform rose steadily during the late Ashgill, until in the mid-late Paraorthograptus pacificus Chron, when rising extinction risk overtook origination. Diversity dropped to very low levels during the early Hirnantian when extinction probabilities attained significantly elevated rates for a period of 600–900 Ky. The period of high extinction risk was followed immediately by a short period of very high origination probability. A second, short period of high extinction risk occurred at the end of Hirnantian time. The Hirnantian extinction events marked a change from relatively low, steady origination and extinction probabilities to a prolonged period of elevated extinction risk and highly variable origination probability that extended well into the Rhuddanian. Extinction and origination was highly selective during the Hirnantian and favored both the survival and diversification of the Normalograptidae relative to the Dicranograptidae, Diplograptidae, and Orthograptidae.
The main phase of extinction in the latest Rawtheyan and early Hirnantian was coincident with continental glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere. The resulting changes in ocean circulation and oxygenation appear to have almost completely eliminated the preferred habitat for most graptolite species. The Yangtze Platform region, however, may have served as a refugium for many taxa that disappeared earlier in other regions as well as a host site for the initiation of graptolite rediversification. Following the end of the glaciation, conditions favorable for graptolite proliferation were restored but graptolite communities remained unstable for much of the late Hirnantian and early Rhuddanian. Accordingly, the Hirnantian mass extinction appears to have fundamentally altered graptolite species dynamics as well as clade dominance patterns. A full understanding of the history of life requires an expanded, hierarchical theory of evolution that gives to mass extinctions (and other levels of selection) an appropriate role in determining clade and diversity histories.
In his monograph on the fauna of the Utica and Lorraine Formations of New York, Ruedemann (1925b) described a new and unusually young species of Corynoides, C. ultimus. He obtained these specimens from a thin band within the Utica Shale at a locality on Ohisa Creek (a tributary of the more well known Nowadoga Creek) in the Mohawk Valley. Like many of the graptolites from the Utica, the Corynoides ultimus specimens are vague carbon films, extensively exfoliated and difficult to study. Perhaps consequently, Ruedemann's illustrations and measurements are not entirely accurate and do not reveal sufficient detail for meaningful comparison of this taxon with other, better known species.
The stratigraphic distribution of graptoloid species within the upper Middle Ordovician strata of New York State represents a complex pattern of origination, extinction, faunal migration, and fluctuating relative abundances. In particular, the observed patterns of species turnover at graptolite biozone boundaries are apparently strongly correlated with lithofacies, sampling strategies, and the depositional effects of relative sea-level change.
Vertical facies changes that occur within third-order depositional sequences and fourth- or fifth-order parasequences are mirrored by changes in the graptoloid faunal composition. Large-scale faunal turnovers at biozone boundaries tend to occur either at sequence boundaries or at flooding surfaces within sequences (e.g., the base of Highstand System Tracts). The base of the Corynoides americanus and Climacograptus (D.) spiniferus Zones coincide with major onlap events, and the Orthograptus ruedemanni Zone fauna appears just below a Lowstand Systems Tract. Within individual biozones, smaller-scale changes such as the fluctuating relative abundances of graptoloid species coincide with higher-order parasequence cyclicity. These distribution patterns resemble recent computer-generated models for the sequence stratigraphic distribution of hypothetical taxa.
By combining good biogeographic control with a detailed sampling program, we are able to see through the patterns attributable to depositional cyclicity and identify the different components of faunal turnover (migration, speciation, and extinction).
An intriguing phenomenon in the study of evolutionary rates of morphological change measured from fossil lineages has been the dependence of these rates on the inverse of the measurement interval. This effect has been reported across wide ranges of species as well as within single lineages, and has been interpreted as representing a smooth extension of evolutionary rate from generational timescales to paleontological timescales, suggesting that macroevolution may be simply microevolution extended over longer intervals. There has been some debate about whether this inverse dependence is a real feature of evolutionary change, or a mathematical or psychological artifact associated with the interpretation of data.
Our analysis indicates that the strong inverse dependence of rate on interval is an artifact produced by the phenomenon of spurious self-correlation. Spurious self-correlation can appear in any calculation when a ratio is plotted against its denominator, as is done in plotting rate versus interval, and when these two quantities are not well correlated with one another. We demonstrate that the effect of spurious self-correlation appears in seven published data sets of evolutionary rate that range from taxonomically broad compendia to studies of single families. The effect obscures the underlying information about the dependence of evolutionary change on interval that is present in the data sets. In five of the seven data sets examined there is no significant correlation between the extent of evolutionary change and elapsed time. Where such a correlation does exist, the inverse dependence of rate on interval length is weakened. We describe the role played by taxonomic, dynamic, and character inhomogeneity in producing the lack of correlation of change with interval in each of these data sets. This lack of correlation of change with interval, and the accompanying inverse correlation of rate with interval, most likely arises from discontinuous modes of evolutionary change in which a distinct long-term dynamic dominates net change over geological time spans. It is poorly explained by the extrapolationary microevolutionary models that have been said to account for this phenomenon.
Traditionally, the distinction between meraspis and holaspis among trilobites has been based on the achievement of the full adult complement of thoracic segments. Using a large sample (over 700 specimens collected from a single bed) we explore the utility of employing the ontogenetic trajectory of the cranidium as an alternative means to differentiate trilobite growth stages. This method is particularly useful for species represented solely by exuviae and disarticulated individuals. We use geometric morphometrics to examine shape change among cranidia ranging in size from 0.9 mm to 11.6 mm in cephalic length. The 114 measured specimens exhibit a rather continuous gradation in size in which no distinct instars are evident.
The meraspid and holaspid specimens exhibit allometry when partial warp scores and uniform components of shape derived from thin-plate spline analysis are regressed onto log centroid size. To describe allometric shape change, deformation vectors from the smallest to the largest specimen in both ontogenetic stages are presented in three different superimposition settings by using a new software program. We have concluded that a new superimposition method (the Sliding Baseline Registration) is a useful tool for visualizing allometry in organisms that contain an axis of symmetry. As a result, we conclude that allometry is evident in meraspides and holaspides, but the degree of allometry in holaspides is very small relative to that in meraspides. The boundary between meraspis and holaspis in Triarthrus becki appears to correspond to a large change in the rate of ontogenetic change, but neither to a change in the direction of that trajectory nor to a cessation of ontogenetic change. This boundary also corresponds to a cranidium centroid size that matches well previous determinations that holaspis begins at about 2.8 mm in cephalic length.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
George Jennings Hinde (1839–1918) was a pioneering geologist and paleontologist. Not only did he contribute greatly to the conodont research field by making innovative studies on Ordovician and Devonian faunas (see e.g., von Bitter, 2004), he was one of the first to describe scolecodonts, the jaws of polychaete worms. Scolecodont publications prior to Hinde's (1879, 1880, 1882, 1896) four contributions were few and merely included descriptions of one or a few specimens. Hinde was aware of the taxonomic affinity of these fossils, a discovery that he ascribed to the Swedish paleontologist Nils Peter Angelin (Hinde, 1882, p. 3–4). Moreover, he was first to investigate these fossils from the world-famous island of Gotland, Sweden (Hinde, 1882), from which most studies on Silurian scolecodonts subsequently have been carried out (Eriksson et al., 2004). Although he understood that the scolecodonts were parts of complex jaw apparatuses, he felt forced to use a single-element-based taxonomy (see Hinde, 1879, p. 373–374). He described close to a hundred “species” and varieties, and many of these names are still in use. Hence, Hinde's scolecodont heritage is still very much alive and his type collections are critical for the study of these fossils, particularly for resolving nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. In this note we discuss, and illustrate for the first time, the graptolites briefly mentioned by Hinde (1879) and describe the important stratigraphic information that they contribute to his Upper Ordovician scolecodont types.
Extinct organisms with no close analogs and only distant living relatives are especially difficult subjects for paleobiological interpretation. Graptolites, especially the derived planktic Graptoloidea, are among this group of enigmatic fossils. Although the Pterobranchia are widely regarded as a sister group to graptolites, their entirely benthic, loosely organized colonies provide a poor analog for the mobile, highly integrated graptoloid colonies with their complex geometries. As a consequence, many basic features of zooid form and function are unknown. Under these circumstances, particularly troubling features—that is, features that do not readily fit into our simple models—may provide critical data with which to reform the models. It is with this hope that we describe here new observations of some graptolite specimens of the genus Appendispinograptus (Li Zhi-Ming and Li Da-Qing, 1985) and suggest a model for their function.
New data on the proximal structure of several glossograptid species, including Paraglossograptus holmi, indicate that symmetry between sicula and the first theca is ubiquitous and primitive for the group. This isograptid symmetry is shared with species of Isograptus and Oncograptus, among others, as is a dicalycal second theca, and the initial downward growth of the first several thecal pairs. Consideration of these and other features of the rhabdosome structure leads us to reassess the phylogenetic relations among Glossograptus, Pseudisograptus, Isograptus, and their relatives. The Glossograptidae is a holophyletic clade comprising the common ancestor of Isograptus caduceus and I. victoriae and all its descendants, including the monopleural glossograptines. Incipient monopleural development is exhibited by the otherwise Isograptus-like Bergstroemograptus crawfordi. Derived glossograptids, such as Glossograptus and Kalpinograptus, share a fully monopleural rhabdosome with a prominent proximal bulge formed by the overlap of the early thecae. Contrary to some claims, none possesses a manubrium or manubrium-like structure. The manubrium and the arienigraptid suture are restricted to Arienigraptus hastatus and its descendants. These features unite the Arienigraptidae. The Arienigraptidae, based on their possession of isograptid symmetry and lack of any derived characters shared uniquely with the glossograptids, appear to be a sister group of the Glossograptidae rather than a stem group. These two families appear most closely allied to certain reclined, two-stiped species, such as Isograptus? dilemma, that retain tetragraptid proximal symmetry.
Recent studies of drill-cores and outcrops have resulted in the discovery of previously unknown, taxonomically diverse, graptolite faunas in the late Middle (Mohawkian) and early Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian) strata in the Cincinnati region, the type area of the Cincinnatian Series. These faunas contain several zonal indices and other biostratigraphically important species that are used for close correlation with the standard graptolite zone succession in New York and Quebec. The new data show that the base of the Cincinnatian Series in its type area is near the middle of the Climacograptus (Diplacanthograptus) spiniferus Zone. Significantly, about a dozen Cincinnati region graptolite species are shared with apparently coeval strata in the standard Australian graptolite zone succession in Victoria, and this key faunal evidence indicates that the base of the typical Cincinnatian corresponds to a level near the middle of the Climacograptus (Climacograptus) baragwanathi Zone (Ea2) of the Eastonian Stage. This represents a considerable revision of some recently published correlations of the basal Cincinnatian in terms of the Australian graptolite zone succession.