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We aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing corn silage by orange peel silage on nutrient intake, ruminal parameters and milk production of multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Eight fistulated Holstein cows averaging 587.5 ± 39.6 kg and 111 ± 22 d in milking were randomly assigned to a double 4 × 4 Latin square design carried out two times to determine the effects of feeding with orange peel silage (OPS) in substitution of whole plant corn silage (WPCS). The treatments were a control diet with WPCS only or diets with OPS replacing WPCS in the total mixed diet (250, 500, or 750 g/kg DM). All cows were fed the same 750 : 250 g/kg roughage : concentrate ratio. The DM intake and milk production were reduced with the OPS inclusion, with decreases in consumption of neutral detergent fibre and increased consumption of non-fibrous carbohydrates. Diets with 250 and 500 g/kg OPS showed similar milk production and protein content in milk to the standard WCPS diet, whilst 750 g/kg orange peel silage as roughage increased fat and protein contents significantly. The orange peel silage as a substitute for corn silage for feeding dairy cows did not show adverse changes in the rumen environment and showed promising results in the increase of fat in milk of Holstein cows.
In the present study, the effect of flax hulls with or without flax oil bypassing the rumen on the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows was investigated. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four periods of 21 d each and four treatments: control diet with no flax hulls (CONT); diet with 9·88 % flax hulls in the DM (HULL); control diet with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO); diet with 9·88 % flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). A higher mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor, fatty acid (FA) synthase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), PPARγ1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α was observed in cows fed HULL than in those fed CONT, and HUFO had the opposite effect. Compared with CONT, COFO and HUFO lowered the mRNA abundance of SCD, which may explain the lower proportions of MUFA in milk fat with flax oil infusion. The mRNA abundance of LPL in mammary tissue and proportions of long-chain FA in milk fat were higher in cows fed COFO than in those fed CONT. The highest proportions of trans FA were observed when cows were fed HULL. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls with or without flax oil infusion in the abomasum can affect the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows, which may contribute to the improvement of milk FA profile.
The effects of flax meal (FM) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) in the blood, mammary tissue and ruminal fluid, and oxidative stress indicators (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging activity) in the milk, plasma and ruminal fluid of dairy cows were determined. The mRNA abundance of the antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress-related genes was assessed in mammary tissue. A total of eight Holstein cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments in the diet: control with no FM (CON) or 5 % FM (5FM), 10 % FM (10FM) and 15 % FM (15FM). There was an interaction between treatment and time for plasma GPx and CAT activities. Cows supplemented with FM had a linear reduction in TBARS at 2 h after feeding, and there was no treatment effect at 0, 4 and 6 h after feeding. TBARS production decreased in the milk of cows fed the 5FM and 10FM diets. There was a linear increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) mRNA abundance in mammary tissue with FM supplementation. A linear trend for increased mRNA abundance of the CAT gene was observed with higher concentrations of FM. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPx1, GPx3, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3 and nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NFKB) genes was not affected by the treatment. These findings suggest that FM supplementation can improve the oxidative status of Holstein cows as suggested by decreased TBARS production in ruminal fluid 2 h post-feeding and increased NFE2L2/nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA abundance in mammary tissue.
Ruminal microbiota plays an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into mammalian lignans. The main mammalian lignan present in the milk of dairy cows fed flax products is enterolactone (EL). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of flax oil on the metabolism of flax lignans and concentrations of EL in biological fluids of dairy cows. A total of six rumen-cannulated dairy cows were assigned within a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of six treatments utilising flax hulls (0 and 15·9 % of DM) and abomasal infusion of flax oil (0, 250 and 500 g/d). There were six periods of 21 d each. Samples were collected during the last 7 d of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. Flax hull supplementation increased concentrations of EL in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk, while flax oil infusion had no effect. Post-feeding, β-glucuronidase activity in the ruminal fluid of cows infused with 250 g flax oil was significantly lower for cows fed hulls than for those fed the control diet. The present study demonstrated that the presence of a rich source of n-3 fatty acids such as flax oil in the small intestine does not interfere with the absorption of the mammalian lignan EL and that lower ruminal β-glucuronidase activity had no effect on the conversion of flax lignans into EL in the rumen of dairy cows.
The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of flax hulls and/or flax oil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) in plasma and the mammary gland and the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant genes in the mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments: control with no flax hulls (CONT), 9·88 % flax hulls in the DM (HULL), control with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO), 9·88 % flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). Plasma GPX activity tended to decrease with flax oil supplementation. Cows fed HULL had higher levels of CAT, GPX1 and SOD1 mRNA in the mammary gland and lower mRNA abundance of GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 compared with those fed CONT. Abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 mRNA was down-regulated in the mammary gland of cows fed HUFO compared to those fed CONT. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3 and SOD3 was lower in the mammary gland of cows fed COFO than in the mammary gland of cows fed CONT. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls contribute to increasing the abundance of some antioxidant genes, which can contribute to protecting against oxidative stress damage occurring in the mammary gland and other tissues of dairy cows.
Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n−3 fatty acids but there is little information on digestibility of its nutrients by dairy cows. Four rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 665±21 kg of body weight and 190±5 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with four 28-d experimental periods to determine the effects of feeding monensin and flaxseed hulls on total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids. The four treatments were: (1) diet CO: control with neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin added; (2) diet FH containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g dry matter (DM); (3) diet MO with 16 mg monensin/kg DM; (4) diet HM containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g DM and 16 mg monensin/kg DM. Diets provided similar amounts of protein and net energy of lactation. Digestibility of crude protein was higher for diets containing flaxseed hulls and for diets supplemented with monensin. Flaxseed hulls supplementation decreased digestibility of acid and neutral detergent fibre. Significantly higher digestibility of ether extract and individual fatty acids was observed for treatments with flaxseed hulls compared with treatments without flaxseed hulls. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better fatty acid digestibility than when feeding only flaxseed hulls.
Flax hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (FA) but there is little information on digestion of flax hull based diets and nutritive value of flax hull for dairy production. Flax oil is rich in α-linolenic acid (LNA) and rumen bypass of flax oil contributes to increase n-3 FA proportions in milk. Therefore, the main objective of the experiment was to determine the effects of abomasal infusion of increasing amounts of flax oil on apparent digestibility, dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, milk composition, and milk FA profile with emphasis on the proportion of LNA when cows were supplemented or not with another source of LNA such as flax hull. Six multiparous Holstein cows averaging 650±36 kg body weight and 95±20 d in milk were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design (21-d experimental periods) with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were: 1) control, neither flax hull nor flax oil (CON), 2) diet containing (DM basis) 15·9% flaxseed hull (FHU); 3) CON with abomasal infusion of 250 g/d flax oil; 4) CON with abomasal infusion of 500 g/d flax oil; 5) FHU with abomasal infusion of 250 g/d flax oil; 6) FHU with abomasal infusion of 500 g/d flax oil. Infusion of flax oil in the abomasum resulted in a more pronounce decrease in DM intake for cows fed the CON diets than for those fed the FHU diets. Abomasal infusion of flax oil had little effect on digestibility and FHU supplementation increased digestibility of DM and crude protein. Milk yield was not changed by abomasal infusion of flax oil where it was decreased with FHU supplementation. Cows fed FHU had higher proportions of 18:0, cis9-18:1, trans dienes, trans monoenes and total trans in milk fat than those fed CON. Proportion of LNA was similar in milk fat of cows infused with 250 and 500 g/d flax oil in the abomasum. Independently of the basal diet, abomasal infusion of flax oil resulted in the lowest n-6:n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, suggesting that the most important factor for modification of milk FA profile was the amount of n-3 FA bypassing the rumen and not the amount of flax hull fed to dairy cows. Moreover, these data suggest that there is no advantage to supply more than 250 g/d of flax oil in the abomasum to increase the proportion of LNA in milk fat.
Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (FA) but there is little information on its value for dairy production. Monensin supplementation is known to modify biohydrogenation of FA by rumen microbes. Therefore, the main objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding a combination of monensin and flaxseed hulls on ruminal fermentation characteristics and FA profile of ruminal fluid and milk. Four ruminally fistulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 665±21 kg body weight and 190±5 d in milk were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d experimental periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were: 1) control, neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin; 2) diet containing (dry matter basis) 19·8% flaxseed hulls; 3) diet with monensin (16 mg/kg dry matter); 4) diet containing 19·8% (dry matter basis) flaxseed hulls and 16 mg monensin/kg. Flaxseed hull supplementation decreased the acetate to propionate ratio in ruminal fluid and monensin had no effect. Concentrations of trans-18:1 isomers (trans9,trans11,trans13/14+6/8) and cis9,12,15-18:3 in ruminal fluid and milk fat were higher and those of cis9,12-18:2 in milk fat tended (P=0·07) to be higher for cows supplemented with flaxseed hulls than for cows fed no flaxseed hulls. Monensin had little effect on milk fatty acid profile. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better milk fatty acid profile than when feeding only flaxseed hulls.
Four ruminally fistulated multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary supplementation of monensin and flaxseed hulls on ruminal and milk concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL) and ruminal and faecal activity of β-glucuronidase. The hypothesis was that monensin supplementation has no effect on the incorporation of EL into milk when cows are fed flaxseed hulls. Treatments were: 1) control, neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin (CO); 2) diet containing (dry matter basis) 20% flaxseed hulls (FH); 3) diet with monensin (16 mg/kg of dry matter; MO); 4) diet containing 20% (dry matter basis) flaxseed hulls and 16 mg/kg monensin (HM). Intake of dry matter was higher for CO and MO than for FH and HM and monensin had no effect. Milk production decreased in cows fed flaxseed hulls while monensin had no effect. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk and concentrations of milk fat, lactose, urea N, and total solids were similar among treatments. Although there was a decrease in ruminal activity of β-glucuronidase when feeding flaxseed hulls, the metabolism of plant into mammalian lignans may be increased as shown by enhanced concentration of EL in the rumen and milk. Supplementation with flaxseed hulls then may contribute to favourably change milk composition for better human health by enhancing mammalian lignan EL concentration.
Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside is the main flax (Linum usitatissimum) lignan that is converted to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) by gastrointestinal microbiota. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of ruminal microbiota and the effects of flax oil on in vivo metabolism of flax lignans and concentration of EL in biological fluids. Four rumen-cannulated dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four periods of 21 d each and four treatments utilising flax hulls (1800 g/d) and oil (400 g/d) supplements. The treatments were: (1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water; (2) oil and hulls administered in the abomasum; (3) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen; (4) oil placed in the rumen and hulls administered in the abomasum. Samples were collected during the last week of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. The site of supplementation of oil and hulls had no effect on ruminal EL concentration. Supplementing flax oil in the rumen and the abomasum led to similar EL concentrations in urine, plasma and milk. Concentrations of EL were higher in the urine, plasma and milk of cows supplemented with hulls in the rumen than in those placed with hulls in the abomasum. The present study demonstrated that ruminal microbiota play an important role in the metabolism of flax lignans.
In study 1, four cows had a ruminal canula, a catheter in the right ruminal vein and an ultrasonic flow probe around the right ruminal artery; a catheter was placed in the auricular artery on experimental days. Blood samples were taken every 10 min from -20 to 60 min after ruminal infusion of 5·79 mmol pteroylmonoglutamic acid and cyanocobalamin. There was a net release of these vitamins across the rumen wall following the infusion (P=0·06). In studies 2 and 3, four cows had catheters in the portal, one hepatic and two mesenteric veins and one mesenteric artery. Plasma flow was determined using p-aminohippurate. In study 2, blood samples were taken before and every 30 min for 6 h after feeding 0 or 4 mg of pteroylmonoglutamic acid. Flow of folates through the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and the total splanchnic tissues (TSP) tended to increase with the ingestion of pteroylmonoglutamic acid (P=0·19). In study 3, blood samples were collected every 30 min for the first 3 h to calculate plasma flow and basal net fluxes of folates and vitamin B12. The cows were fed 2·6 g pteroylmonoglutamic acid and 500 mg cyanocobalamin; blood samples were taken every 2 h for 24 h. Vitamin supplements increased the net release of folates and vitamin B12 from PDV (P=0·04) and TSP (P=0·13). The present results demonstrate that, in dairy cows, at doses reported to improve animal performance, passage of pteroylmonoglutamic acid to the portal blood appears during the 6 h following its ingestion, whereas for cyanocobalamin, it is a slow process, not yet completed 24 h after its ingestion.
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