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The relationship between depression and mania remains poorly understood and is responsible for much of the confusion about mixed states. The difficulty in conceptualizing opposite states such as euphoric and depressive moods during the same episode may account for the considerable differences in reported frequencies of mixed states, among acutely manic patients. It is possible that the fundamental mood characteristic of mania is not tonality of mood (e.g. euphoric, irritable or depressed mood), but rather the intensity of emotions.
We interviewed 30 patients hospitalized for a manic episode, asking about their symptoms during the episode, using the list of symptoms for manic and depressive episode of the DSM-IV criteria. Emotional hyper-reactivity, defined as an increase in the intensity of all emotions, was assessed using the Hardy Scale. Manic symptoms were also assessed by a clinician using the Beck–Rafaelsen Mania Scale.
This study showed that most of the manic episodes presented many dysphoric symptoms, more particularly depressive mood (33%), irritability (53%), anxiety (76%), and recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation (33%). However, only 10% of our sample met the criteria for mixed state. The other symptoms reported by patients and included in the DSM-IV criteria for depressive mood are common between depressive and manic episodes. All patients (100%) reported that they felt all their emotions with an unusual intensity.
We suggest that the most appropriate way to define mood in manic states is as a function of intensity, and not as a function of tonality. This definition circumvents the arbitrary dichotomy between mania and mixed state. With this definition, manic episodes can be described as being more or less dysphoric, with the actual characteristics of dysphoria encompassing irritability, anxiety, or depressive affect. This point could be extremely helpful in discriminating mixed state or dysphoric mania from depression.
Translated from French by Chantal Wright with an introduction by Marko Pajević
Henri Meschonnic (1932–2009) was a French linguist, literary scholar, poet and translator of the Bible who developed a theory of language based on the notion of rhythm. He was a major French intellectual of his generation and had a particularly strong influence in translation studies. His theory of language, however, concerns many fields and aims at transforming notions such as rhythm, the subject, sense, the poem and, indeed, the episteme altogether, thus developing a poetics of society (cf. Pajević and Smith 2018).
Meschonnic is difficult to read since he developed his own terminology and an often elliptic style, working against convention. All his concepts – such as rhythm, the continuous, the subject, modernity, the poem, orality – are interrelated, and only by reading him widely and having one concept illuminate the others, can one fully grasp them as an ensemble (Pajević 2011). Meschonnic published a good sixty books.
Proceeding from Émile Benveniste's (1966) linguistic archaeology of the notion of rhythm, and discovering that this term, before Plato, designated a particular configuration of movement or a characteristic arrangement of parts in an ensemble (Benveniste 1966), Meschonnic developed his poetics of rhythm and made of the traditional formal notion of rhythm a semantic one. Rhythm thus becomes central to signifiance, that is, the way meaning is constituted. In Meschonnic's definition, rhythm is the organisation of sense in discourse. And since sense is an activity of the subject, rhythm – as a configuration of the subject in its discourse – produces and transforms the subject. His theory of rhythm thus is also a theory of the subject and develops a historical anthropology of language. Throughout his life, Meschonnic attacked ‘the sign’ and ‘semiotics’, particularly their claim to an exclusive representation of language, demonstrating that they cannot explain important activities of language. He presented rhythm as an alternative approach to language and hence to the subject and society, based on the continuous of language in discourse.
The following text is an extract from his magnum opus Critique du rythme. Anthropologie historique du langage. It exposes in a nutshell some of the main notions of his theory, the relation of histheory of rhythm to the concepts of sense, discourse, subject and semiotics.
Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach.
We investigated neuropsychological performance in 476 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of BD expert centres. We used a battery of tests, assessing five domains of cognition. Five criteria for the identification of neuropsychological impairment were tested based on their convergent and concurrent validity. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions between cognitive impairment and several clinical and demographic variables were performed to identify risk factors for neuropsychological impairment in BD.
One cut-off had satisfactory psychometric properties and yielded a prevalence of 12.4% for cognitive deficits in euthymic BD. Antipsychotics use were associated with the presence of a cognitive deficit.
This is the first study to validate a criterion for clinically significant cognitive impairment in BD. We report a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment than previous studies, which may have overestimated its prevalence. Patients with euthymic BD and cognitive impairment may benefit from cognitive remediation.
The relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognition and functioning in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder is a subject of debate.
To assess whether cognition mediates the association between residual depressive symptoms and functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who were euthymic.
We included 241 adults with euthymic bipolar disorder in a multicentre cross-sectional study. We used a battery of tests to assess six cognition domains. A path analysis was then used to perform a mediation analysis of the relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognitive components and functioning.
Only verbal and working memory were significantly associated with better functioning. Residual depressive symptoms were associated with poorer functioning. No significant relationship was found between residual depressive symptoms and any cognitive component.
Cognition and residual depressive symptoms appear to be two independent sources of variation in the functioning of people with euthymic bipolar disorder.
Revisions of international classification systems for mental disorders have focused on improving the reliability of diagnostic criteria. However, the uncertain validity of the current diagnostic categories means that they do not always fulfil their key purposes, namely to guide treatment and predict outcomes. This is especially true when traditional diagnostic approaches are applied to adolescents and young adults with emerging illnesses. A clinical staging model, similar to those used in general medicine, could improve diagnosis in psychiatry and aid treatment decision-making, especially if applied to individuals aged about 15–25 years, which is the peak age range for the onset of severe mental disorders. Staging models may offer a new framework for the development of interventions with high benefit and low risk, and for research into neurobiological and psychosocial risk factors. However, this approach is not without controversy: some experts oppose its introduction, some argue that it represents a transdiagnostic model, and some suggest it is only viable if disorder-specific models are used.
• Gain awareness of some limitations of current approaches to psychiatric diagnosis
• Review the basic principles of clinical staging models used in general medicine
• Understand current research on the use of staging models in psychiatry, and attempts to apply these models to bipolar disorders
Metabolism of 14C-pronamide [N-(1,1-dimethylpropynyl)-3,5-dichlorobenzamide, carbonyl- 14C] was studied in silt loam soil (located in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) and in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., ‘Appia′, Clause3) from a crop planted in soil that had been treated before planting. During the experiment, most of the 14C remained in the 0- to 6-cm soil layer. The percentage of 14C-pronamide degraded to 14CO2 during the experiment was less than 10%. The soil-extractable 14C was made up of pronamide and its first ketone metabolite [N-(1,1-dimethylacetonyl)-3,5-dichlorobenzamide]. About 30% of the pronamide present in the soil was bound to the soil. The bound residue, i.e., the 14C that could not be extracted by acetone, at lettuce harvest was about 80% of the 14C contained in the soil at that time; 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid was the main component of the bound residue. The harvested lettuce also contained pronamide, the ketone, and 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid. Similar kinetics of metabolism were observed with lettuces grown on loamy sand soil (located in St. Kathelijne-Waver, Belgium). However, pronamide was not bound to this type of soil.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
Although cognitive deficits are common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), no study to date has investigated whether these deficits extend to the capacity to execute delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). This is a surprising omission given the critical role PM plays in correctly implementing many important CHF self-care behaviors. The present study aimed to provide the first empirical assessment of PM function in people with CHF. The key dependent measure was a laboratory measure of PM that closely simulates PM tasks in daily life – Virtual Week. A group comparison design was used, with 30 CHF patients compared to 30 demographically matched controls. Background measures assessing executive functions, working memory, and verbal memory were also administered. The CHF group exhibited significant PM impairment, with difficulties generalizing across different types of PM tasks (event, time, regular, irregular). The CHF group also had moderate deficits on several of the background cognitive measures. Given the level of impairment remained consistent even on tasks that imposed minimal demands on memory for task content, CHF-related difficulties most likely reflects problems with the prospective component. However, exploratory analyses suggest that difficulties with retrospective memory and global cognition (but not executive control), also contribute to the PM difficulties seen in this group. The implications of these data are discussed, and in particular, it is argued that problems with PM may help explain why patient engagement in CHF self-care behaviors is often poor. (JINS, 2015, 21, 1–10)
Estimation of the quality of commercial diets is a topic of interest for the majority of dog owners. Recently, in a French consumer association magazine, an evaluation of eight dog commercial dry diets (from super-premium, basic-nutrition, private-label and economy brands) according to several nutritional criteria was published. The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate the apparent digestibility of these diets; (2) to score these diets according to digestibility results; and (3) to compare these data with the scoring of the magazine. Six adult Beagle dogs were enrolled for the digestibility trials. Diets were scored according to energy, crude protein and crude fat (CF) apparent digestibility coefficients, digestible protein-to-energy ratios and ash content. Each of the five criteria was scored from 4 to 20 points. The ranges of crude protein, CF, crude fibre and ash content were 20·9–30·6 %, 6·8–19·7 %, 2·2–3·3 % and 4·6–9·7 % on a DM basis, respectively. The ranges of energy, crude protein and CF apparent digestibility coefficients were 72·6–87·7 %, 70·4–82·5 % and 76·1–95·4 %, respectively. The range of the protein-to-energy ratio was 10–14 digestible crude protein per MJ metabolisable energy. Little overlap in the scoring systems was found, but the private-label brand and economy brand diets presented the lowest scores in the two systems. These results showed that the evaluation of commercial diets should take into account multiple nutritional aspects. In particular, analytical and biological (digestibility) criteria should be considered as complementary in the evaluation of dry dog commercial diets.
Introduction. Les réactions d’oxydation constatées régulièrement dans les aliments peuvent causer des dommages importants, entraînant parfois des cancers et maladies chroniques. Les extraits d’huiles essentielles étant connus pour posséder d’importantes propriétés thérapeutiques, notre étude a cherché à comparer les activités antiradicalaires et anti-inflammatoires des essences de C. reticulata var. Madagascar et C. sinensis var. Casagrande. Matériel et méthodes. Les huiles essentielles des feuilles d’agrumes ont été extraites par hydrodistillation et leur composition chimique a été analysée par chromatographie en phase gazeuse et par chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. La détermination des propriétés antiradicalaires a été faite par la méthode du piégeage des radicaux libres à l’aide du diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). En revanche, la méthode enzymatique par la lipoxygénase a permis d’évaluer l’activité anti-inflammatoire des extraits d’huiles essentielles obtenues par hydrodistillation. Résultats. Les propriétés antiradicalaires de nos échantillons ont été évaluées avec une SC50 égale à (4,10 ± 0,05) g·L–1 et (7,40 ± 0,55) g·L–1, respectivement, pour C. reticulata var. Madagascar et C. sinensis var. Casagrande, alors que le composé antiradicalaire de référence (butylhydroxytoluène ou BHT) donnait une SC50 de (7,02 ± 0,5) mg·L–1. Par ailleurs, les deux échantillons ont montré une activité anti-inflammatoire exploitable (IC50 de 53,5 mg·L–1 et 20,3 mg·L–1, respectivement) même si le NDGA (acide nordihydroguaiarétique) a eu une IC50 de 0,7 mg·L–1. Conclusion. C. reticulata var. Madagascar se révèle avoir une activité antiradicalaire plus importante que C. sinensis var. Casagrande, alors que cette dernière espèce a présenté l’activité anti-inflammatoire la plus marquée. Ces huiles essentielles pourraient être utilisées comme additifs alimentaires.
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation for 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived from 2-D velocity maps. Our main result is that the majority of the Hickson Compact Group (HCG) galaxies lie on the TF relation, although with large scatter. However, 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-mass systems, seem to have higher B luminosities, for a given mass, or alternatively, a mass which is too low for their luminosities. We favour the scenario of brightening of the outliers due to either enhanced star formation or merging, rather than truncation of the dark halo due to interactions, to explain the position of the outliers on the TF relation.
The detailed study of the internal kinematics of tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates detected in optical and/or HI observations is most important to address the question about their origins. We are conducting a program to measure the kinematics of TDG candidates in compact groups using a Fabry-Perot instrument which allows us to study the 2-D velocity maps of the objects with high spatial and spectral resolutions. Our main goal is to select TDG candidates which have kinematics independent of the possible parent galaxies. In this paper, we describe our results for Stephan's quintet (SQ) and HCG 31. We find that the dynamical masses of the TDG candidates in SQ range from 108 up to 1010M⊙. Two objects to the E and S of HCG 31 A+C present counterrotating patterns with amplitudes of 30 and 40 km s−1. Region F, which was previously thought to be the best example of TDG presents no rotation.
Introduction. Les extraits d'huiles essentielles possèdent des propriétés
antivirales, antibactériennes et antifongiques connues de longues dates. Le travail
présenté a donc cherché à évaluer l'effet d'huiles extraites de différentes variétés
d'agrumes sur la croissance mycélienne in vitro de Phaeoramularia angolensis,
champignon responsable de la phaeoramulariose des Citrus. Matériel et méthodes.
Les huiles essentielles extraites par hydrodistillation des péricarpes de fruits
de six variétés d'agrumes ont été analysées pour en déterminer la composition chimique
et évaluer leur activité antifongique vis-à-vis de P. angolensis. L'activité des extraits
a été évaluée in vitro par la technique d'incorporation décrite par Grover et Moore.
Les huiles ont été analysées par chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la
spectrométrie de masse. Résultats. La croissance de P. angolensis a été inhibée
par les huiles essentielles à des degrés variés, avec une activité plus prononcée
pour les huiles issues de C. latifolia et de C. limon. L'analyse de la composition
chimique des huiles testées a montré que les plus actives ont une teneur relativement
importante en citrals (néral + géranial $> 5 \%$), ce qui s'accorde avec l'existence de
propriétés antifongiques connues chez les citrals. Conclusion. Ces résultats préliminaires
sont d'autant plus intéressants que C. limon et C. latifolia sont des variétés réputées
peu sensibles à la phaeoramulariose en conditions naturelles. Le rôle probable des
huiles essentielles dans la résistance variétale vis-à-vis de P. angolensis est discuté.
La poursuite de ces recherches contribuera à une meilleure compréhension des relations
We present new observations of Hα emission of the Hickson Compact Group 18 (HCG 18) obtained with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. The velocity field does not show motions of individual group members but instead a complex common velocity field of H18b, c and d. The gas distribution is very clumpy with blobs coinciding with group members but located also elsewhere. Comparing Hα with H ɪ data we reached the conclusion that HCG 18 seems to be an irregular galaxy containing several clumps of star formation sites.
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