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Objectives: The treatment of infected knee arthritis in patients with coexisting joint destruction, including superimposed advanced arthritis or chronic osteomyelitis, is challenging. We investigated the outcomes of 2-stage primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for evolutive infected arthritis with coexistent joint destruction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 50 patients from 5 hospitals who presented with infected arthritis of the knee and were treated with 2-stage TKA: debridement and antibiotic-loaded articulating cement spacer (ALCS) insertion as the first stage and TKA as the second stage. We recorded demographics, laboratory results, and radiographic findings including Kellgren-Lawrence classification (KL) for knee arthritis. Outcomes including infection eradication, knee range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcome measures were evaluated. Results: The patient cohort had a mean age of 71.8 years (range, 40–86); they were followed for an average of 4.1 years (range, 2.2–13.3). Also, 40 patients showed KL grade 4, whereas 10 patients showed grade 3. A pathogen was identified in 38 cases (73.1%); methicillin-resistant staphylococci infections (N = 16) and Candida spp infections (N = 7) were the 2 most common types. Constrained prostheses were used in 10 cases (20%). Stem augmentations were used in 15 cases (36.0%) and block augmentations were used in 8 cases (19.0%). One patient had recurrent infection after TKA, so the eradication rate was 98%. After 2-stage TKA, the mean knee ROM was 119.4° (range, 80°–140°) and the mean Knee Society (KS) knee score was 90.4, the average KS function score was 84.7, the average Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score was 87.2, and the average Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score was 16.7. The KS function scores (P = .029) and the WOMAC scores (P = .022) were significantly better in 17 patients who underwent ALCS insertion within 30 days of infection diagnosis compared to the other 33 patients. Conclusions: The 2-stage primary TKA for patients with infected knee arthritis with coexisting joint destruction showed satisfactory outcomes with a low infection recurrence. However, constrained prostheses or augmentation use may be necessary. Notably, some functional scores were better in the group that underwent ALCS insertion relatively early after the infection diagnosis.
A sediment core (14DH-C01) obtained from the mouth of Gomso Bay, on the west coast of South Korea, was used to obtain high-resolution palynomorph, grain-size, and 14C age data to investigate the Holocene sedimentary environment. The results indicated a transgressive depositional process with four stages controlled by sea-level change, as follows: river-dominated fluvial deposition from the early Holocene to 8.48 cal ka BP; tide-dominated tidal channel fill transgression from 8.48 to 8.08 cal ka BP; tide- to wave-dominated tidal channel fill transgression from 8.08 to 6.98 cal ka BP; and wave-dominated marine transgression from 6.98 cal ka BP to the present. Tidal channel filling was the primary mid-Holocene depositional process, accounting for the high sedimentation rate observed. The different hydrodynamics of the river-dominated, tide-dominated, tide- to wave-dominated, and wave-dominated processes following the changes in sea level may have controlled the transgressive depositional process. This transgressive sedimentary model differs from those of other large river mouth areas (e.g., the Changjiang River) since the mid-Holocene, perhaps resulting from the limited sediment supply in the study area.
We demonstrate the tungsten disulfide (WS2) thin film catalysts prepared by the sulfurization of vacuum deposited WO3 thin films for efficient hydrogen production with over 90% Faradaic efficiency. The 23-nm-thick WS2 thin film catalyst heterojunction with p-type silicon photocathode could exhibit a photocurrent density of 8.3 mA/cm2 at 0 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), a low onset potential of 0.2 V versus RHE when photocurrent density reaches −1 mA/cm2 and long-term stability over 10 h. The enhanced catalytic activities of WS2/p-Si photocathodes compared with the bare p-Si photocathode originate from a number of edge sites in the synthesized polycrystalline thin films, which could act as hydrogen evolution catalyst.
This study investigates the relationship between insomnia and cognitive dysfunctions including, subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia, by considering depression in a community sample of elderly individuals.
Data for 1,740 elderly individuals aged 65 years and over were obtained from a nationwide dementia epidemiological study conducted in South Korea. Cognitive functional status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet Clinical Assessment Battery. Insomnia was defined as the presence of at least one of the four sleep complaints (difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep), accompanied by moderate to severe daytime consequences. Depression was evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale.
The prevalence of insomnia in the patients with SMI, MCI, and dementia was found to be 23.2%, 19.6%, and 31.0%, respectively. The patients with SMI, MCI, and dementia were significantly more likely to have insomnia and the four sleep complaints than the normal comparison patients. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the significant relationships between cognitive dysfunctional status and insomnia remained. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and depression, no significant relationships with any of the sleep complaints or insomnia remained.
Insomnia is a very common complaint in the elderly with SMI, MCI, and dementia. Depression might play an important factor in the relationship between insomnia and cognitive dysfunctional status in the elderly.
The study's aim was to examine the association of alcohol consumption with verbal and visuospatial memory impairment in older people.
Participants were 1,572, aged ≥60 years, in the hospital-based registry of the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS). Moderate drinking was defined as no more than seven drinks per week and three drinks per day. Memory impairment was defined as performance with more than 1 standard deviation below the mean value on the Seoul Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test.
Those who consumed alcohol moderately, compared with abstainers, had a lower odds of verbal memory impairment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.64; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.46–0.87), adjusting for covariates. Visuospatial memory, however, was not significantly associated with alcohol consumption.
Moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a reduced likelihood of verbal memory impairment among older people attending memory clinics.
In many countries, illiteracy rates among aged people are quite high. However, only few studies have specifically investigated the impact of illiteracy on depression.
Data for 1,890 elderly individuals (aged ≥65 years) were obtained from a nationwide dementia epidemiological study conducted in South Korea. Based on their reading ability, the participants were divided into three groups: totally illiterate, partially illiterate, and literate. The Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale – Short Form (SGDS-K) was used to detect depression (cut-off score = 8). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between illiteracy and depression. To explore clinical features of depression in illiterate people, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios of positive responses (or negative responses to reverse-coded items) for each SGDS-K item using literate individuals as the reference group.
Totally illiterate participants had 2.41 times the odds and partially illiterate individuals had 1.59 times the odds of being depressed compared with literate participants after controlling for other variables. Compared with literate individuals, illiterate elderly persons were at increased odds for responding negatively to the majority of SGDS-K items, including “having memory problems,” “others are better off than me,” and “feeling worthless” even after controlling for various demographic and clinical factors.
Illiteracy in elderly individuals was associated with a higher rate and increased severity of depression. Illiteracy negatively affected depression symptomatology, especially factors associated with self-esteem. Therefore, clinicians should carefully monitor for the presence of depression in illiterate elderly adults.
Background: Insomnia is a common psychiatric complaint among elderly individuals. This study investigates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of insomnia by considering a community sample of elderly individuals in South Korea.
Methods: A face-to-face household survey was conducted in five regions of South Korea from June 2008 to August 2008. Among a total of 3,074 individuals aged 65 years and over, 2,002 participants were interviewed. The presence of insomnia was defined as having at least one of four sleep complaints that included difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and non-restorative sleep (NRS) more than three times per week in the last month. The Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Questionnaire, a short form of the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS), and a medical review of systems were implemented.
Results: Insomnia was found in 29.2% of the participants. DIS, DMS, EMA, and NRS accounted for 19.4%, 21.7%, 19.6%, and 8.0% of the participants respectively. Insomnia accompanied by daytime consequences accounted for 17.1% of the participants. The participants who were females, had no education, lived alone, showed symptoms of RLS or depression, and had a lifetime history of physical illness were significantly more likely to report insomnia. The prevalence of DIS, DMS, EMA, or insomnia increased slightly with age, whereas that of NRS decreased slightly. The lifetime history of head trauma, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, anemia, or depression was significantly related to insomnia.
Conclusion: Sleep problems are common among elderly individuals and are closely related to their lifetime history of physical illness.
12Cr ODS steel samples were prepared by mechanical alloying of the metal powders with 20-30 nm Y2O3 particles followed by isostatic pressing, hot rolling and final heat treatment. Evolutions of oxide particles such as YTaO4 and YCrO3 after each fabrication step were investigated by using TEM with EDS. Crystallographic correlation between oxide particles and the matrix was investigated in a HIPped sample, and interactions between dislocations and oxide particles were observed in hot rolled or heat treated sample. Size distributions of oxide particles were measured by carbon replica samples and it was found that coarsening of oxide particles from 9 to 12 nm occurred during hot rolling process. Additional isothermal annealing at 1250 ˚C revealed that phase transformation of oxide particles from monoclinic YTaO4 to face centered cubic Y3TaO7 was observed.
When a drop is deposited on a superhydrophilic micropillar array, the upper part of the drop (referred to as the bulk) collapses while the bottom part penetrates into the gaps of the array, forming a fringe film. Here we quantify the early stage dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. We show that the circular front of the fringe film spreads like t1/2, t being time, when coupled to the bulk flow. However, the film is found to advance like t1/3 through faceted zippering in the absence of the bulk. We then show that the spreading of the bulk and the entire drop footprint follows a power law (t1/4) that is different from Washburn's law. This work can be a starting point to completely understand the spreading of liquids on superhydrophilic surfaces and opens questions specific to superwetting behaviour including the criteria to determine whether the fringe film will expand through lateral zipping or advance radially outwards.
High-resolution imaging and quantitative surface analysis of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species were performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. Both juvenile and adult needles were collected from the two-year-old seedlings of Pinus rigida and Pinus densiflora and subjected to surface observations. Epicuticular wax structures developed on the cuticle layer as well as in the epistomatal chambers and appeared to occlude the cavities in the two pine species. The stomata of P. densiflora were characterized by more distinctly raised rings around openings than P. rigida. The most common epicuticular wax structures of the two pine species included tubules with terminal openings and coiled rodlets. Wax platelets were deposited on epistomatal chambers. Either rodlets or tubules seemed to be longer and thicker in P. rigida than those in P. densiflora. White light scanning interferometry revealed quantitative surface profiles, demonstrating more ridged (ca. 4 μm high) stomatal apertures and nearly twofold deeper (ca. 20 μm deep) epistomatal chambers of P. densiflora than those of P. rigida. These results suggest that white light scanning interferometry can be applied to unravel the quantitative surface features of epicuticular sculptures on plant leaves.
A method allowing for the stable growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of a fibrous metal mesh substrate (SUS304) was developed with the assistance of the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. The controlled addition of up to ∼13% of O2 to the CH4 plasma reacting gas flow was found to promote the growth of the CNTs by oxidizing the amorphous carbon and removing the active H2 radicals. However, excessive amounts of O2 (i.e., fraction of O2 > ∼13%) and H2 were found to play a negative role in the growth of the CNTs. The control of the density and length of the CNTs was also achieved by varying the H2 plasma reduction time and CH4 plasma reacting time, respectively. Longer H2 reduction pretreatment of the catalytic metal islands resulted in the formation of a less dense CNT forest with craters. When the growth time of the CNTs was increased to ∼20 min, their length was increased to ∼10 μm. However, when the growth time of the CNTs exceeded 20 min, their length was significantly decreased, indicating that the continuous presence of O2 in the CH4 plasma destroys the preformed CNTs due to the oxidation reaction.
We developed a new Cu–Zn wetting layer for Pb-free solders. By adding Zn to the Cu wetting layer, intermetallic growth in the Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solder interfaces was delayed. Cu3Sn intermetallic compounds and microvoids were not observed in the SAC/Cu–Zn interfaces after aging. The drop reliability of the SAC solder/Cu–Zn joints was excellent.
Vertically-aligned Mn (10%)-doped Fe3O4 (Fe2.7Mn0.3O4) nanowire arrays were produced by the reduction/substitution of pre-grown Fe2O3 nanowires. These nanowires were ferromagnetic with a Verwey temperature of 129 K. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements revealed that the Mn2+ ions preferentially occupy the tetrahedral sites, substituting for the Fe3+ ions. We observed that the Mn substitution decreases the magnetization, but increases the electrical conductivity. We developed highly sensitive gas sensors using these nanowire arrays, operating at room temperature, whose sensitivity showed a correlation with their bond strength of diatomic/triatomic molecules. Based on the fact that the sensitivity was highest toward water vapor, an excellent-performance humidity sensor was fabricated.
Quality Si thin films were grown by the metal-induced growth (MIG) method. Metal (Co, Ni, or mixing of Co and Ni) was thermally evaporated on a 200 nm-SiO2 coated Si wafer. Si sputtering was performed at 600 – 620 °C in a dc magnetron system. The reaction of Si and metal first formed a silicide (CoSi2 or NiSi2) layer and further Si sputtering grew a Si film above it. The grown Si films were practically fabricated for Schottky photodiodes and electrically measured under one sun scan illumination (100 mW/cm2).
Silicon carbide (SiC) microtubes were synthesized and characterized via a vapor–solid (VS) reaction of carbon fiber (Csolid) and SiO(gas). The synthesis mechanisms were investigated. The precursor led complete conversion of [SiO(gas) + C(solid)] into [SiC(solid) + CO(gas)] through overall reaction under inert gas flow at and above 1350 °C. Carbon fibers with small surface area (0.7–2.0 m2 g−1) were gradually converted to SiC microtubes with large specific surface area (45–63 m2 g−1). Inner surface of SiC microtubes indicated a villus-like morphology, which consisted of submicron-sized SiC villi. The outer surface of the SiC microtubes was smooth. Inner surface morphology of SiC microtubes was dependent upon synthesizing temperature. Thickness of villus-like layer in SiC microtubes increased with increasing synthesizing temperature, showing 0.25 and 0.5 at 1350 and 1400 °C, respectively. Both VS and gas–liquid–solid (VLS) growth mechanisms were investigated in synthesis of SiC fiber as a reaction byproduct, and the reaction was governed by both growth mechanisms.
The structural properties of GaN epitaxial layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates by MOCVD have been investigated using HRXRD(high-resolution X-ray diffraction), GIXRD(grazing incidence X-ray diffraction) and PL(photoluminescence). For X-ray characterizations rocking curves for GaN (10·5), (00·2), (11·4) and (11·0) reflections for which incidence angles of X-rays are 32.0°, 17.3°, 11.0° and 0.34°, respectively, were measured. For (10·5), (00·2) and (11·4) reflections FWHMs of the rocking curves for a patterned substrate were broader than those for a unpatterned substrate, for (11·0) reflection, however, FWHM for a patterned substrate was much narrower than that for a unpatterned substrate. The normalized FWHM for all reflections decreases as the incidence angle of X-ray decreases. The results indicate that the crystalline quality in the surface region of the epilayer on a patterned substrate was especially improved because the penetration depth of X-ray depends on the incidence angle. The intensity of PL peak of the epilayer for a patterned substrate increased compared to that for a unpatterned substrate, and the increase in PL intensity is attributed to the reduction in dislocation density at the surface region revealed the by X-ray results.
The structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on sapphire by MOCVD have been investigated using high-resolution XRD, PL and TEM. The samples consisted of 10 periods of InGaN wells with 6.5nm thickness. The designed indium compositions were 15, 20, 25 and 30% (samples C15, C20, C25, C30, respectively). The thickness of GaN barrier was 7.5nm. The MQW in sample C15 maintained lattice coherency with the GaN epilayer underneath, the MQWs in the other samples, however, experienced lattice relaxation. The crystallinity of the samples decreased considerably with In concentration. As In composition increased, PL peak energy showed a red-shift, and the FWHM of the peaks increased. The increase in the FWHM is attributed to the defects due to the lattice relaxation. For C25 the PL peak intensity increased sharply in spite of the defects due to the lattice relaxation of the sample. It is concluded that the results are related to the In-rich region due to indium phase separation which was observed by TEM image.
Field emission characteristics were investigated for zinc oxide nanostructures which were grown on NiO catalyzed silicon (100) substrate by chemical vapor deposition method. The asgrown zinc oxide showed needle-shaped nanostructures with tip diameters of 20∼40 nm and length of 3∼5 νm. The turn-on field was found to be about 6 V/νm at a current density of 1 νA/cm2. After several field emission measurements, the turn-on field was increased up to 8.5 V/νm and the magnitude of field enhancement factor was decreased from 1190 to 940. According to SEM, the tip diameter increase of the zinc oxide to 60 nm was observed after several emission measurements. Therefore, degradation of the field emission characteristic after measurements is attributed to this deformation of the tip shape.
The structural and the optical properties of 10-period In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been investigated using HRXRD (high-resolution X-ray diffraction) and PL (photoluminescence). For the samples, the barrier thickness was kept constant, 7.5 nm and the well thicknesses were varied, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 nm. For the structural characterization, an ω/2θ-scan and an ω-scan for GaN (00 2) reflection and a reciprocal space mapping (RSM) around the GaN (10 5) lattice point were employed. The average strain for the MQWs increased as the well thickness increased. The MQW with a 6.0 nm well thickness experienced lattice relaxation and the crystallinity of the sample was poor compared to that of the other samples. MQWs with well thicknesses of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 nm, however, maintained lattice coherency with the GaN epilayers underneath, and the critical well thickness for lattice relaxation of the MQWs used in the study was 6.0 nm. The PL spectra showed that the relative emission intensity of the sample with a 6.0 nm well thickness was lower than for the others, a fact consistent with the X-ray results. The emission intensity, therefore, is considered to be affected by defects due to lattice relaxation of the epilayer.
Using a gas mixture of propyne (C3H4) and ammonia (NH3) as a carbon precursor, we have successfully synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by the direct current (dc) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) onto Co-sputtered glass at 550°C. As the flow ratio of NH3 to C3H4 in the mixture gas increased, the crystallinity and alignment of CNTs were improved. In addition, the field emission characteristics of CNTs were also improved. the turn-on voltage became lower, and the current density and the field enhancement factor were more increasing. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to confirm the effect of the gas flow ratio on CNTs. Therefore, the gas flow ratio was found to be one of important factors to govern the crystalline and field emission characteristics of CNTs. The growth mechanism of CNTs using a C3H4 gas is under investigation with the possibility that three carbon atoms in a C3H4 molecule is converted directly to a hexagon of a CNT by combining two molecules.