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The development of surgical sperm retrieval procedures can be considered as the single most important breakthrough in the field of male infertility. Various testicular sperm retrieval procedures exist and are indicated in patients with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia, as well as patients with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and severe derangements in semen parameters. Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction can be considered the gold standard retrieval method as it allows meticulous and selective sampling of sperm-containing seminiferous tubules, yielding the highest retrieval rate in comparison to other surgical sperm retrieval methods.
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