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Due to the exceptional complexity of the propulsion system (sails), square-riggers form a special group of sailing vessels. In modern pleasure and sport sailing, simple Bermuda (triangular) sailing rigging prevails, which is widely discussed in the literature, both in terms of theory and numerous experiments. The literature on the theory on square-riggers is, in turn, limited mainly to the description of good sailing practice developed over the centuries. Its important element was maximising vessel speed, but this discussion has not been documented by scientific research. This paper presents the significant parameters influencing the speed of a square-rigged sailing vessel and selects those which are the most important from the point of view of its maximisation. The paper also proposes methods and measurement systems which optimise selected parameters affecting the achievement of higher speeds. The paper describes the types of speeds of typical sailing vessels, provides a historical synthesis of sailing ships with respect to their speed, and presents a selection and description of the parameters affecting the speed of modern square-rigged vessels. The paper ends with a proposed method and measurement system for experimental research aiming at rigging optimisation in a square-rigged sailing vessel from the point of view of maximising its speed.
Radio navigation systems (RNSs) are commonly applied in air, land and marine navigation. They are most often used for position determination. However, when comparing the definitions of this concept provided by global organisations, such as the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), International Maritime Organization (IMO) or International Telecommunication Union (ITU), it should be noted that the definitions presented differ significantly. Due to the ambiguity and numerous contradictions, the RNS classification varies depending on the definition of the term ‘radio navigation’ adopted, which poses serious interpretation problems. This article analyses the concept of radio navigation based on the most important global documents and legal acts on this issue. It points to fundamental differences in the understanding of the term and proposes the adoption of a new, uniform definition for air, land and marine navigation. Based on this definition, the current paper proposes a uniform RNS classification. The proposed definition of the concept of radio navigation and the resulting RNS classification are essential for the understanding of this term to achieve global uniformity and fundamental to the harmonious development of the scientific discipline of navigation. The current proposal should initiate a discussion on the meaning of the concept of radio navigation and the RNS classification.
Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) are included in a group of supporting systems (Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS)/Space-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)) for the American GPS. Their main task is to ensure better positioning characteristics (accuracy, reliability, continuity and availability) compared to GPS. Therefore, they are widely applied wherever GPS failures affect human safety, mainly in aviation, land and marine navigation. The aim of this paper is to assess the predictable positioning accuracy of DGPS and EGNOS receivers using a vessel manoeuvring in the Bay of Gdansk. Two receivers were used in the study: a Simrad MXB5 (DGPS) and a Trimble GA530 (EGNOS), which were simultaneously recording their coordinates. The obtained values were compared with the trajectory computed using a geodetic Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver (Trimble R10) connected to a GNSS network, ensuring an accuracy of 2–3 cm (p = 0·95). During a four-hour measurement session, the accuracy statistics of these systems were determined based on around 11,500 positionings. Studies have shown that both positioning systems ensure a similar level of accuracy of their positioning services (approximately 0·5–2 m) and they meet the accuracy requirements set in published standards.
This paper describes the genesis, the principle of operation and characteristics of selected radio-navigation positioning systems, which in addition to terrestrial methods formed a system of navigational marking constituting the primary method for determining the location in the sea areas of Poland in the years 1948–2000, and sometimes even later. The major ones are: maritime circular radiobeacons (RC), Decca-Navigator System (DNS) and Differential GPS (DGPS), as well as solutions forgotten today: AD-2 and SYLEDIS. In this paper, due to its limited volume, the authors have omitted the description of the solutions used by the Polish Navy (RYM, BRAS, JEMIOŁUSZKA, TSIKADA) and the global or continental systems (TRANSIT, GPS, GLONASS, OMEGA, EGNOS, LORAN, CONSOL) - described widely in world literature.
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