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To report on the prevalence of different types of breast-milk substitutes (BMS) marketing and the compliance of such marketing with the ‘Control of Marketing of Infant and Young Child Food Act 2017’ (The Act) and the ‘International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (WHO Code)’ in Thailand.
Cross-sectional quantitative study, guided by the WHO/UNICEF NetCode Periodic Assessment Protocol.
Health facilities and retail outlets in Bangkok, Thai media.
Mothers of 0–2-year-old children, health professionals, promotions at retail outlets and health facilities, product labels, marketing on television and the internet.
Marketing to mothers was highly prevalent, mostly from electronic or digital media, while BMS companies provided items to health professionals to distribute to mothers. Promotional materials in health facilities displayed company brands or logos. At retail outlets, most promotions were price-related. Approximately two-fifths of labels contained nutrition or health claims. Television marketing was growing-up-milk (GUM) advertisements, while internet promotions were varied from price-related materials to product reviews. Most instances of non-compliant BMS marketing with the Act were advertisements to mothers, and most were infant formula. Most non-compliant BMS marketing with the WHO Code was mainly concerned GUM, which are not covered by the Act and appeared in the media.
BMS marketing does not fully comply with the Act or the WHO Code. The Thai government should conduct regular monitoring and enforcement activities, educate health professionals, and strengthen the Act’s provisions on the media and GUM to fully align with the WHO Code.
Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased stroke risk, but little is known about how SMI relates to stroke prognosis and receipt of acute care.
To determine the association between SMI and stroke outcomes and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators (such as timely admission to stroke unit).
We conducted a cohort study using routinely collected linked data-sets, including adults with a first hospital admission for stroke in Scotland during 1991–2014, with process-of-care quality indicator data available from 2010. We identified pre-existing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression from hospital records. We used logistic regression to evaluate 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators by pre-existing SMI, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used Cox regression to evaluate further stroke and vascular events (stroke and myocardial infarction).
Among 228 699 patients who had had a stroke, 1186 (0.5%), 859 (0.4%), 7308 (3.2%) had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, respectively. Overall, median follow-up was 2.6 years. Compared with adults without a record of mental illness, 30-day mortality was higher for schizophrenia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.33, 95% CI 1.16–1.52), bipolar disorder (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.60) and major depression (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.18). Each disorder was also associated with marked increased risk of 1-year and 5-year mortality and further stroke and vascular events. There were no clear differences in receipt of process-of-care quality indicators.
Pre-existing SMI was associated with higher risks of mortality and further vascular events. Urgent action is needed to better understand and address the reasons for these disparities.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as an acute respiratory illness leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the disease spread, demands on health care systems increased, specifically the need to expand hospital capacity. Alternative care hospitals (ACHs) have been used to mitigate these issues; however, establishing an ACH has many challenges. The goal of this session was to perform systems testing, using a simulation-based evaluation to identify areas in need of improvement.
Four simulation cases were designed to depict common and high acuity situations encountered in the ACH, using a high technology simulator and standardized patient. A multidisciplinary observer group was given debriefing forms listing the objectives, critical actions, and specific areas to focus their attention. These forms were compiled for data collection.
Logistical, operational, and patient safety issues were identified during the simulation and compiled into a simulation event report. Proposed solutions and protocol changes were made in response to the identified issues.
Simulation was successfully used for systems testing, supporting efforts to maximize patient care and provider safety in a rapidly developed ACH. The simulation event report identified operational deficiencies and safety concerns directly resulting in equipment modifications and protocol changes.
The scientific community and most mainstream agriculturalists typically design fertilizer recommendations to provide a ‘sufficient level of available nutrients’ to meet the annual N, P and K requirements of common field crops. Soil balancing is another approach to managing soil fertility that focuses on the levels of Ca, Mg and K to achieve a desired base cation saturation ratio (BCSR). Soil balancing is believed to be practiced frequently by organic and other alternative farmers but is viewed skeptically by conventional agricultural scientists due to a lack of support for the idea in the published scientific literature. This study represents a pioneering effort to collect systematic data on the extent of soil balancing, how it is practiced and the types of outcomes reported by organic farmers. Our survey of over 850 farmers who grow certified organic corn in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania found that over half report using a soil-balancing approach based on BCSR. Their practice of soil balancing frequently includes more than management of base cations, but also uses a wide range of soil amendment products (such as purchased organic NPK fertilizers, micronutrients, microbial stimulants and soil inoculants) other than those applied specifically for cation balance. Farms that rely on vegetable and dairy production for most of their income, and Amish farmers who rely on horses for fieldwork, were more likely to report using a soil-balancing program. Self-described soil balancers perceived positive agronomic outcomes from the use of a BCSR program, including improvements in soil physical and biological properties and improved crop health and quality. Although farmers in our study report extensive use and positive perceived outcomes from soil-balancing methods, the scientific research literature has been unable to reproduce evidence that manipulating soil base cation levels has any systematic effect on crop yield. Future research could consider the interacting effects of BCSR with other field management practices to more closely approximate the actual practices of farmers.
The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program in response to the challenges of translating biomedical and behavioral interventions from discovery to real-world use. To address the challenge of translating evidence-based interventions (EBIs) into practice, the field of implementation science has emerged as a distinct discipline. With the distinction between EBI effectiveness research and implementation research comes differences in study design and methodology, shifting focus from clinical outcomes to the systems that support adoption and delivery of EBIs with fidelity.
Implementation research designs share many of the foundational elements and assumptions of efficacy/effectiveness research. Designs and methods that are currently applied in implementation research include experimental, quasi-experimental, observational, hybrid effectiveness–implementation, simulation modeling, and configurational comparative methods.
Examples of specific research designs and methods illustrate their use in implementation science. We propose that the CTSA program takes advantage of the momentum of the field's capacity building in three ways: 1) integrate state-of-the-science implementation methods and designs into its existing body of research; 2) position itself at the forefront of advancing the science of implementation science by collaborating with other NIH institutes that share the goal of advancing implementation science; and 3) provide adequate training in implementation science.
As implementation methodologies mature, both implementation science and the CTSA program would greatly benefit from cross-fertilizing expertise and shared infrastructures that aim to advance healthcare in the USA and around the world.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
Knowledge of inbreeding levels in historical times is necessary to estimate the health consequences of past inbreeding, and to contextualize the current public debate about cousin marriage in Britain. This research aims to calculate the level of cousin marriage using the intensive technique of multi-source parish reconstitution and to determine whether village organization, religion and occupational class influenced the level of consanguineous marriage. A wide variety of documentary sources were used to create extensive pedigrees of spouses in over 800 marriages in the 19th century in the rural villages of Stourton and Kilmington. The closed village of Stourton had higher levels of inbreeding than the open village of Kilmington. Catholics had lower rates of 1st cousin marriage but higher rates of 2nd cousin marriage than Protestants. Farmers had higher levels of 1st cousin marriage than labourers. The levels of consanguinity in south-western Wiltshire in the 19th century were related to the economic structure of the villages and the religion and social class of the spouses.
Poor weight gain is common in infants after Stage I Norwood operation and can negatively impact outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of feeding strategy on interstage weight gain.
In a multi-centre study, 158 infants discharged following the Norwood operation were enrolled prospectively. Weight and feeding data were obtained at 2-week intervals. Differences between feeding regimens in average daily weight gain and change in weight-for-age z-score between Stage I discharge and Stage II surgery were examined.
Discharge feeding regimens were oral only in 52%, oral with tube supplementation in 33%, and by nasogastric/gastrostomy tube only in 15%. There were significant differences in the average daily interstage weight gain among the feeding groups – oral only 25.0 grams per day, oral/tube 21.4 grams per day, and tube only 22.3 grams per day – p = 0.019. Tube-only-fed infants were significantly older at Stage II (p = 0.004) and had a significantly greater change in weight-for-age z-score (p = 0.007). The overall rate of weight gain was 16–32 grams per day, similar to infant norms. The rate of weight gain declined over time, with earlier decline observed for oral- and oral/tube-fed infants (less than 15 grams per day at 5.4 months) in comparison with tube-only-fed infants (less than 15 grams per day at 8.6 months).
Following Stage I Norwood, infants discharged on oral feeding had better average daily weight gain than infants with tube-assisted feeding. The overall weight gain was within the normal limits in all feeding groups, but the rate of weight gain decreased over time, with an earlier decline in infants fed orally.
To undertake a service evaluation of the pilot Lothian functional electrical stimulation (FES) clinic using both quantitative and qualitative methods and clinical practice reflection.
Clinical guidelines recommend that FES, for the management of dropped foot after stroke, is delivered by a specialist team. However, little detail is provided about the structure and composition of the specialist team or model of service delivery. A pilot Lothian FES clinic was developed to explore the clinical value of providing such a service to stroke patients with dropped foot and identify any service modifications.
Mixed methods were used to evaluate the service and included quantitative, qualitative and reflective components. Phase 1: Before and after service evaluation of patients attending the FES clinic between 2003 and 2007. Outcomes of gait velocity and cadence were recorded at initial clinic appointment and 6 months after application of FES. Phase 2: Qualitative research exploring patients with stroke and carers’ experiences of the FES clinic. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Phase 3: A reflection on the service delivery model. Participants: Phase 1: 40 consecutive out-patients with stroke; Phase 2: 13 out-patients with stroke and 9 carers; Phase 3: Three specialist physiotherapists engaged in running the FES clinic.
Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.001) were demonstrated in gait velocity and cadence. Qualitatively, one super-ordinate theme ‘The FES clinic met my needs’ emerged. Within this were four sub-themes, namely 1. ‘Getting to grips with FES wasn’t difficult’; 2. ‘It’s great to know they’re there’; 3. ‘Meeting up with others really helps’ and 4. ‘The service is great but could be better’. On reflection, minor modifications were made to the service delivery model but overall the service met user needs. This dedicated FES clinic produced positive physical outcomes and met the needs of this chronic stroke population.
The Presidents of the Microscopy Society of America, the Microbeam Analysis Society and the International Metallographic Society invite you to join them in Richmond for the 2009 Microscopy & Microanalysis meeting. This EXPO issue of Microscopy and Microanalysis provides you with full details of the scientific meeting and its ancilliary events, as well as giving valuable information about the many vendors who will be exhibiting their products at the meeting. Attendance at the meeting will provide you with a useful snapshot of the diverse activities taking place across the many scientific disciplines that currently utilize microscopy and microanalysis.
In spring 2002, APSA President-Elect Theda Skocpol appointed this Task Force on Graduate
Education, representing a variety of institutions, political science subfields, scholarly
backgrounds, and methodological viewpoints. She asked its members to report on ways to
strengthen graduate education in political science. The Task Force quickly concluded that no
single structure of graduate training could be appropriate for the wide range of
institutions offering graduate instruction in political science, and that departments must
decide for themselves what programs best suited their capacities and interests.
Much of the investigational work that pupils do in schools reduces to a routine of generating data, spotting number patterns and describing those patterns . I will refer to this routine as the inductive approach. Many GCSE candidates only use algebraic notation as an alternative translation of what they have already articulated in words. Yet surely the power of algebra is in its potential for providing proof and suggesting further enquiry, based on the similarity of structure between the algebraic model and the original situation.
Recognition of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia offers the potential of early intervention to avert relapse and re-hospitalization (Carpenter & Heinrichs, 1983). The present study investigated how a strategy to detect prodromal signs might be effectively applied in the clinical setting. A standard monitoring system was developed involving completion of a new early signs scale (ESS) measuring changes in key symptoms phenomenologically (self-report) and behaviourally (observer report). The ESS was subject to rigorous psychometric evaluation and tested in a prospective pilot investigation. The ESS reliably identified early signs and predicted relapse with an overall accuracy of 79%. Several different patterns of relapse were identified. Observer reports compensated for loss of insight in some patients. In two cases where early signs indices were detected, prompt increases in medication appeared to arrest relapse and avert readmission. The ESS offers itself as a reliable, valid and administratively feasible measure and demonstrates considerable potential as a cost-effective procedure for secondary prevention.