Large differences in new infection rates occurred with half-udder milking machines in which one half of the cluster operated substantially free from vacuum fluctuations while the other half was subjected to various combinations of different types of fluctuation in vacuum. To increase the rate of new infection all teats were contaminated before and after each milking by immersion in a suspension of Streptococcus agalactiae and Str. dysgalactiae. A series of short-duration trials indicated that neither irregular nor cyclic fluctuations in vacuum acting alone were able to increase new infection rate. However, either the Nyhan and Cowhig irregular fluctuation, or a variant of it in combination with cyclic fluctuations in vacuum, was able to do so under the particular experimental conditions used.