To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The COVID-19 pandemic may have affected the relationship/experience of the mother-child dyad (Provenzi et al., 2021). Our objective is to identify the association of pandemic related maternal stress with child development. We will further evaluate the role of bonding, attachment, and trauma on this association. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We aim to recall a prospective cohort (n=200) of Latinx/Hispanic mothers from an ongoing study, power analysis will estimate minimum sample size (power=0.80 and alpha =0.05). Assessments of pandemic related maternal stress (PRMS) will be done with the COVID-19 and Perinatal Experiences Interview, perceived stress scale, and Parental Stress Index. Bonding, attachment, and trauma history will be assessed with psychological questionnaires and Childs behaviors with the Ackerman-CBCL questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis will be done. Correlations will identify associations and multivariate models will assess the role of parental bonding and effects of maternal attachment/trauma on associations to PRMS and child behavioral outcomes (controlling for confounding effects). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: First, we expect to find that mothers will report higher levels of stress (pandemic related, perceived, and parental) which will be associated with less bonding behaviors towards her child. Second, we expect that mothers levels of PRMS will be mediated by poorer bonding characteristics thus leading to negative child behavioral outcomes (i.e., poor regulation, crying spells, alterations in physiological patterns, and social-emotional developmental outcomes). Further mothers insecure attachment traits and trauma history will moderate perception of stress and negative child behavioral outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results will describe stress in Latinx/Hispanics mothers during the pandemic and effects on child development. Identifying the role of maternal bonding/attachment will point to how this formative relationship has transformed during the pandemic, providing knowledge of mother-child resiliency.
Hepatitis A (HA) is a liver disease with a low mortality rate, but it can cause debilitating symptoms and fulminant hepatitis in some cases. Its incidence is greater in geographical areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Spain is considered a low-endemicity country, so universal childhood immunization against HA is currently not financed by the National Health System. The aim of this study was to synthesize the scientific evidence on the cost effectiveness of universal childhood vaccination against HA.
Full economic evaluations, published in the English or Spanish languages, were included if they reported outcome measures related to the prevention of HA, adverse effects, or incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published from the beginning of the databases to April 2018.
A total of 23 economic evaluations were included: one in a country of high endemicity, nine in countries of intermediate endemicity, and 13 in countries with low endemicity. Only one Spanish study, published in 1997, was found. Studies conducted in high- and intermediate- endemicity countries concluded that a universal childhood vaccination program against HA was a cost-effective option. However, in the case of countries with low endemicity the results were heterogeneous, although most agreed that a systematic vaccination strategy would not be a cost-effective option and that the adoption of such a strategy would not be justified given the limited benefits it would offer. The results of the economic evaluations depended on parameters such as the price and duration of the vaccine effect and the program coverage.
In countries with low endemicity the results were heterogeneous, although most studies concluded that the implementation of a universal vaccination strategy is not justified from the point of view of cost effectiveness.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
In the midst of the COVID–19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID–19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.
The famous greenstone figure known as the Tuxtla Statuette is one of only 12 objects known to bear an epi-Olmec inscription and was the first to become known to scholarship. For more than a century its original find-spot was imprecisely and erroneously identified as lying in the township of San Andrés Tuxtla or, more generally, in the Tuxtla Mountains. Correspondence in the National Anthropology Archives of the Smithsonian Institution documents that the figure was found on the Hacienda de Hueyapan de Mimendi, near the colossal head of Tres Zapotes. Archival research in Mexico's National Museum of Anthropology and the Archivo General del Estado de Veracruz, as well as interviews with descendants of owners of the Hacienda de Hueyapan and the statuette, allow us to confirm several features of the Smithsonian correspondence. The data indicate that the statuette was found within or very near the epi-Olmec regional center of Tres Zapotes and within the township of Santiago Tuxtla.
Aphids are phloem-feeding insects that cause economic losses to crops globally. Whilst aphid interactions with susceptible plants and partially resistant genotypes have been well characterized, the interactions between aphids and non-host species are not well understood. Unravelling these non-host interactions can identify the mechanisms which contribute to plant resistance. Using contrasting aphid-host plant systems, including the broad host range pest Myzus persicae (host: Arabidopsis; poor-host: barley) and the cereal pest Rhopalosiphum padi (host: barley; non-host: Arabidopsis), we conducted a range of physiological experiments and compared aphid settling and probing behaviour on a host plant vs either a non-host or poor-host. In choice experiments, we observed that around 10% of aphids selected a non-host or poor-host plant species after 24 h. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph technique, we showed that feeding and probing behaviours differ during non-host and poor-host interactions when compared with a host interaction. In the Arabidopsis non-host interaction with the cereal pest R. padi aphids were unable to reach and feed on the phloem, with resistance likely residing in the mesophyll cell layer. In the barley poor-host interaction with M. persicae, resistance is likely phloem-based as phloem ingestion was reduced compared with the host interaction. Overall, our data suggest that plant resistance to aphids in non-host and poor-host interactions with these aphid species likely resides in different plant cell layers. Future work will take into account specific cell layers where resistances are based to dissect the underlying mechanisms and gain a better understanding of how we may improve crop resistance to aphids.
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
A student's t-test was applied in carbon nanospheres synthesis from cis-1,4-polyisoprene considering the green chemical principles. The synthesis was carried out by Chemical Vapor Deposition method with a quartz tube reactor using an AISI 304 steel bar as catalyst. It was possible to obtain two types of different samples, one from the surface of the steel bar (catalyst) and another from the quartz tube surface (without catalyst) in the same experiment. Carbon spheres were observed in both samples by micrographs obtained by FESEM. The Raman and FTIR spectroscopies shown characteristic bands of this carbon structures (G and D). The results obtained by student's t-test proved a statistical significance between spheres means of samples collected from steel bar and quartz tube surface.
Recent excavations at the Early–Middle Formative period site of Altica in the southern piedmont of the Teotihuacan Valley, Mexico, provide evidence for early agriculture and plant use in a rural community in the northern Basin of Mexico. In the Basin of Mexico, settled agricultural communities were present in the southern sector of the region from at least 1200 cal b.c. Initial expansion into the semiarid northern sector of the Basin, however, appears to have taken place towards the end of the Early Formative, during the transition to the Middle Formative when agricultural economies based on maize cultivation became firmly established, setting the scene for increased population density and concomitant social complexity.
Altica is currently the only community in the Teotihuacan Valley spanning this transitional period that has survived in the face of intensive changes in land use over the last three millennia. Macro- and microbotanical evidence recovered from radiocarbon-dated excavated contexts at Altica provide evidence for maize cultivation and suggest a subsistence economy in transition, prior to the establishment of intensive dependence upon a broader range of domesticated and cultivated plants.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our overall objectives are to determine (i) whether natural disaster-related prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) alters infants’ effortful control (EC) at two years of age, and (ii) if the timing of exposure moderates its effects on toddlers EC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose a longitudinal study with 50 mother-toddler dyads. Natural disaster-related PNMS would be measured at 12-15 and 18-24 months of age and will include: objective exposure and maternal distress. EC will be measured with a questionnaire and a Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery at two years of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that children exposed to Hurricane-related PNMS would present low EC levels compared to those with low prenatal exposure. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results are expected to provide evidence for further promoting early intervention and ameliorating negative effects of PNMS on child outcomes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: For this reason, our overall objectives are to determine (i) whether natural disaster-related PNMS alters infants’ EC at two years of age, and (ii) if the timing of exposure moderates its effects on toddlers EC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose a longitudinal study with 50 mother-toddler dyads. Natural disaster-related PNMS would be measured at 12-18 and 24-30 months of age and will include: objective exposure and maternal distress. EC will be measured with a questionnaire and a Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery at two years of age. To accomplish our objectives, we will conduct regression and moderation analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that children exposed to Hurricane-related PNMS would present low EC levels compared to those with low prenatal exposure. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results are expected to provide evidence for further promoting early intervention and ameliorating adverse effects of PNMS on child outcomes.
Cyberbullying has aroused scientific interest given the impact it has on the lives of young people. The present study proposes to analyze the relationship between self-concept (Self-Description Questionnaire I), academic goals (Achievement Goals Tendencies Questionnaire), and the participation of the roles of victim, bully and bystander in cyberbullying (Cyberbullying. Screening for peer bullying and cyberbullying), by gender and grade. The sample was composed of 548 students (49.8% girls) in 5th and 6th grade of Primary Education (Mage = 10.95, SD = 0.7). Logistic regression analyses showed the explicative role of social self-concept and learning goals in the three roles, highlighting the academic self-concept and achievement goals in the victims, as well as the high social reinforcement goals in bullies and bystanders. This relation varied slightly according to gender and grade, being the motivational orientation towards school achievement a protector of victimization in girls and 6th grade students. The findings are discussed, pointing out their involvement in the development of preventive cyberbullying programs in preadolescence.
Rhythms of the Pachakuti: Indigenous Uprising and State Power in Bolivia. By Raquel Gutiérrez Aguilar. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014. Pp. ix + 284. $25.24 paperback. ISBN: 9780822356042.
State Theory and Andean Politics: New Approaches to the Study of Rule. Edited by Christopher Krupa and David Nugent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. Pp. v + 328. $56.56 hardcover. ISBN: 9780812246940.
Embodied Protests: Emotions and Women’s Health in Bolivia. By María Tapias. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015. Pp. ix + 160. $21.67 paperback. ISBN: 9780252080746.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.