An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage ma-terials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. The carbons are produced in a multi-step process from corncob, have surface areas of up to 3500 m2/g, porosities of up to 0.8, and reversibly store, by physisorp-tion, record amounts of methane and hydrogen. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 250 g CH4/kg carbon and 130 g CH4/liter carbon (199 V/V) at 35 bar and 293 K; and 80 g H2/kg carbon and 47 g H2/liter carbon at 47 bar and 77 K. This is the first time the DOE methane storage target of 180 V/V at 35 bar and ambient temperature has been reached and exceeded. The hydrogen values compare favorably with the 2010 DOE gravimetric and volu-metric targets for hydrogen. A prototype adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, loaded with carbon monoliths produced accordingly and currently undergoing a road test in Kansas City, is de-scribed. A preliminary analysis of the surface and pore structure is given that may shed light on the mechanisms leading to the extraordinary storage capacities of these materials. The analysis includes pore-size distributions from nitrogen adsorption isotherms; spatial organization of pores across the entire solid from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS); pore entrances from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); H2 binding energies from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD); and analysis of surface defects from Raman spectra. For future materials, expected to have higher H2 binding energies via appropriate sur-face functionalization, preliminary projections of H2 storage capacities based on molecular dy-namics simulations of adsorption of H2 on graphite, are reported.