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The Antarctic surface mass balance has been shown to be sensitive to the impacts of atmospheric rivers (ARs), which bring anomalous amounts of both moisture and heat from lower latitudes poleward. Therefore, describing the characteristics of ARs and their intensity and frequency in the Antarctic regions by applying detection algorithms became a key method to evaluating their impacts on the surface mass balance and melting events. Several intense AR events have influenced Antarctica during the year 2022, and here we report an event with a peak on 10 June 2022 that was detected at 84°S, having a potential impact on West Antarctica. The extreme warm event originated in the Southern Pacific subtropical region and evolved towards the Southern Ocean, crossing the northern Antarctic Peninsula, before reaching as far as most inland regions in Antarctica, different from other typical ARs that are mostly restricted to the continental coast.
Metabolic dysfunction and excess accumulation of adipose tissue are detrimental side effects from breast cancer treatment. Diet and physical activity are important treatments for metabolic abnormalities, yet patient compliance can be challenging during chemotherapy treatment. Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a feasible dietary pattern where eating is restricted to 8 h/d with water-only fasting for the remaining 16 h. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a multimodal intervention consisting of TRE, healthy eating, and reduced sedentary time during chemotherapy treatment for early-stage (I–III) breast cancer on accumulation of visceral fat (primary outcome), other fat deposition locations, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk (secondary outcomes) compared with usual care. The study will be a two-site, two-arm, parallel-group superiority randomised control trial enrolling 130 women scheduled for chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. The intervention will be delivered by telephone, including 30–60-minute calls with a registered dietitian who will provide instructions on TRE, education and counselling on healthy eating, and goal setting for reducing sedentary time. The comparison group will receive usual cancer and supportive care including a single group-based nutrition class and healthy eating and physical activity guidelines. MRI, blood draws and assessment of blood pressure will be performed at baseline, after chemotherapy (primary end point), and 2-year follow-up. If our intervention is successful in attenuating the effect of chemotherapy on visceral fat accumulation and cardiometabolic dysfunction, it has the potential to reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease and related mortality among breast cancer survivors.
In an age of flexible conditions about mandatory milk pasteurisation, this opinion-based research reflection supports the view that the knowledge and the awareness of milk-borne infections are key requirements to decrease the risks associated with raw milk. Providing an analysis of the current potential risks related to consumption of raw milk and raw milk products, we discuss the main reasons to continue to be vigilant about milk-borne pathogens and the current scenario in relation to the formal and clandestine sale of raw milk. Finally, we select some highly effective strategies to reduce the risks associated with raw milk in food services. Regardless of whether a country regulation allows or prohibits the trade of raw milk and its products, this is not the time to be negligent.
The experiments reported in this Research Communication aimed to determine if a domestic strip test to detect ethanol residues in breast milk (Milkscreen®) is comparable to a previously established official method for detecting ethanol residues in milk. The two methods are examined in terms of overall sensitivity, robustness against storage and acidity and selectivity against formaldehyde residues. Here, Milkscreen® provided advantages, with faster results (2 min), good sensitivity (≥0.017%), no false results due formaldehyde residues and equal robustness against storage, but with lower sensitivity in acid milk samples. In summary, strip tests for the rapid detection of ethanol residues in breast milk can be used for screening purposes by dairy manufacturers, combining it with the official method to make a final diagnosis.
The aim of this study was to characterise changes in lean soft tissue (LST) and examine the contributions of energy intake, physical activity and breast-feeding practices to LST changes at 3 and 9 months postpartum. We examined current weight, LST (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), dietary intake (3-d food diary), physical activity (Baecke questionnaire) and breast-feeding practices (3-d breast-feeding diary) in forty-nine women aged 32·9 (sd 3·8) years. Changes in LST varied from −2·51 to +2·50 kg with twenty-nine women gaining LST (1·1 (sd 0·7) kg, P<0·001) and twenty women losing LST (−0·9 (sd 0·8) kg, P<0·001). Energy intake (133 (SD 42) v. 109 (SD 33) kJ/kg, P=0·019) and % kJ from fat at 3 months postpartum was higher in women who gained LST at 9 months postpartum (gained LST=34 (sd 5) % kJ; lost LST=29 (sd 4) % kJ, P=0·002). Women who gained LST reported breast-feeding their infants more frequently (gained LST=8 (sd 3) feeds/d; lost LST=5 (sd 1) feeds/d, P=0·014) and for more time per d (gained LST=115 (sd 78) min/d; lost LST=59 (sd 34) min/d, P=0·016) at 9 months postpartum. Energy intake and % kJ from fat at 3 months were significant predictors of LST gain (β=0·08 (se 0·04) and 0·24 (se 0·09), respectively). This suggests that gain in LST may be associated with more frequent and longer episodes of breast-feeding at 9 months postpartum as well as dietary intake early in the postpartum period.
An awareness of the importance of nutritional status in hospital settings began more than 40 years ago. Much has been learned since and has altered care. For the past 40 years several large studies have shown that cancer patients are amongst the most malnourished of all patient groups. Recently, the use of gold-standard methods of body composition assessment, including computed tomography, has facilitated the understanding of the true prevalence of cancer cachexia (CC). CC remains a devastating syndrome affecting 50–80 % of cancer patients and it is responsible for the death of at least 20 %. The aetiology is multifactorial and complex; driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific tumour-derived factors, which initiate an energy-intensive acute phase protein response and drive the loss of skeletal muscle even in the presence of adequate food intake and insulin. The most clinically relevant phenotypic feature of CC is muscle loss (sarcopenia), as this relates to asthenia, fatigue, impaired physical function, reduced tolerance to treatments, impaired quality of life and reduced survival. Sarcopenia is present in 20–70 % depending on the tumour type. There is mounting evidence that sarcopenia increases the risk of toxicity to many chemotherapy drugs. However, identification of patients with muscle loss has become increasingly difficult as 40–60 % of cancer patients are overweight or obese, even in the setting of metastatic disease. Further challenges exist in trying to reverse CC and sarcopenia. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in sarcopenic patients and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.
Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) are frequently measured to define body composition phenotypes. The load–capacity model integrates the effects of both FM and FFM to improve disease-risk prediction. We aimed to derive age-, gender- and BMI-specific reference curves of load–capacity model indices in an adult population (≥18 years).
Cross-sectional study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure FM, FFM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and truncal fat mass (TrFM). Two metabolic load–capacity indices were calculated: ratio of FM (kg) to FFM (kg) and ratio of TrFM (kg) to ASM (kg). Age-standardised reference curves, stratified by gender and BMI (<25·0 kg/m2, 25·0–29·9 kg/m2, ≥30·0 kg/m2), were constructed using an LMS approach. Percentiles of the reference curves were 5th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th and 95th.
Secondary analysis of data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
The population included 6580 females and 6656 males.
The unweighted proportions of obesity in males and females were 25·5 % and 34·7 %, respectively. The average values of both FM:FFM and TrFM:ASM were greater in female and obese subjects. Gender and BMI influenced the shape of the association of age with FM:FFM and TrFM:ASM, as a curvilinear relationship was observed in female and obese subjects. Menopause appeared to modify the steepness of the reference curves of both indices.
This is a novel risk-stratification approach integrating the effects of high adiposity and low muscle mass which may be particularly useful to identify cases of sarcopenic obesity and improve disease-risk prediction.