To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the predictive INTERSALT equation using spot urine samples to estimate 24-h urinary Na (24-hUNa) excretion and daily Na intake among the French adult population. Among 193 French adults (‘validation sample’), we assessed the validity by comparing predicted 24-hUNa excretion from spot urine and measured 24-hUNa excretion from 24-h urine collections. Spearman correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used and we calculated calibration coefficients. In a nationally representative sample of 1720 French adults (‘application sample’), the calibrated predictive equation was then applied to the spot urine Na values to estimate 24-hUNa excretion and daily Na intake. In that sample, predicted Na intake was compared with that estimated from 24-h dietary recalls. Results were adjusted and corrected using calibration coefficients. In the validation sample, the measured 24-hUNa excretion was on average 14 % higher than the predicted 24-hUNa (+13 % for men and +16 % for women). Correlation between measured and predicted 24-hUNa excretion was moderate (Spearman r 0·42), and the Bland–Altman plots showed underestimation at lower excretion level and overestimation at higher level. In the application study, estimated daily salt intake was 8·0 g/d using dietary recalls, 8·1 g/d using predicted INTERSALT equation and 9·3 g/d after applying calibration coefficients calculated in the validation study. Despite overall underestimation of 24-hUNa excretion by spot urinary Na, the use of predictive INTERSALT equation remains an acceptable alternative in monitoring global Na intake/excreted in the French population but its use is not advised at the individual level.
Polyphenols have been suggested as protective factors for a range of chronic diseases. However, studying the impact of individual polyphenols on health is hindered by the intrinsic inter-correlations among polyphenols. Alternatively, studying foods rich in specific polyphenols fails to grasp the ubiquity of these components. Studying overall dietary patterns would allow for a more comprehensive description of polyphenol intakes in the population. Our objective was to identify clusters of dietary polyphenol intakes in a French middle-aged population (35–64 years old). Participants from the primary prevention trial SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study were included in the present cross-sectional study (n 6092; 57·8 % females; mean age 48·7 (sd 6·4) years). The fifty most consumed individual dietary polyphenols were divided into energy-adjusted tertiles and introduced in a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), leading to comprehensive factors of dietary polyphenol intakes. The identified factors discriminating polyphenol intakes were used in a hierarchical clustering procedure. Four clusters were identified, corresponding broadly to clustered preferences for their respective food sources. Cluster 1 was characterised by high intakes of tea polyphenols. Cluster 2 was characterised by high intakes of wine polyphenols. Cluster 3 was characterised by high intakes of flavanones and flavones, corresponding to high consumption of fruit and vegetables, and more broadly to a healthier diet. Cluster 4 was characterised by high intakes of hydroxycinnamic acids, but was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking. Profiles of polyphenol intakes allowed for the identification of meaningful combinations of polyphenol intakes in the diet.
New technologies are promising for the use of short-term instruments for dietary data collection; however, innovative tools should be validated against objective biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of a Web-based, self-administered dietary record (DR) tool using protein, K and Na intakes against 24 h urinary biomarkers (24 h U). Of the total participants, 199 adult volunteers (104 men and 95 women, mean age 50·5 (23–83 years)) of the NutriNet-Santé Study were included in the protocol. They completed three non-consecutive-day DR and two 24 h U on the first and third DR days. Relative differences between reported (DR) and measured (24 h U) intakes were calculated from the log ratio (DR/24 h U) for protein, K and Na intakes: − 14·4,+2·6 and − 2·1 % for men; and − 13·9, − 3·7 and − 8·3 % for women, respectively. The correlations between reported and true intakes were 0·61, 0·78 and 0·47 for men and 0·64, 0·42 and 0·37 for women for protein, K and Na, respectively. Attenuation factors, that represent attenuation of the true diet–disease relationship due to measurement error (a value closer to 1 indicating lower attenuation), ranged from 0·23 (Na, women) to 0·60 (K, men). We showed that the Web-based DR tool used in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study performs well in estimating protein and K intakes and fairly well in estimating Na intake. Furthermore, three non-consecutive-day DR appear to be valid for estimating usual intakes of protein and K, although caution is advised regarding the generalisability of these findings to other nutrients and general population.
Information on the determinants of dietary supplement (DS) use in France is largely lacking, especially in population subgroups such as smokers. Also, little is known about the role of health professionals in DS purchases. The aim of the present study was to describe DS use along with its sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary correlates in a large sample of French adults (age 18+years) participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Data were collected by self-administered Internet questionnaires. Food intakes were assessed by 24 h dietary records. Data on DS use were available for 79 786 participants. Supplement users were compared with non-users by logistic regression. Current DS use at least three times/week was reported by 14·6 % of men and 28·1 % of women. Mg, and vitamins B6 and C were the most frequently consumed nutrients. DS were prescribed or recommended by a physician in 54·9 % of the cases. DS use was positively associated with knowledge of nutritional recommendations and organic product consumption, following a healthier diet and lifestyle (non-smoker, moderate leisure-time physical activity). Current smokers used less DS than did non-smokers, but their DS consumption was substantial (19·0 %) and they were more likely to self-medicate. The present study provides updated and detailed information on DS use determinants in a large French cohort, including a focus on smokers, for whom the long-term effects of DS use are poorly documented and could represent a risk. These findings pave the way for future aetiological studies.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.