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At present, the social economy is in a period of fast-paced change in China, with various modes of production and life evolving and emerging. The transfer of agricultural land is the transformation of the utilization mode of the main factors of production in rural areas, and it is one of the contents of the social and economic reform in rural areas. In 2021, the area of rural land transfer is up to 3.7×1011 m2 in China, an increase of 4.3% over the previous year. 1,239 counties (cities, districts) and 18,731 townships have established agricultural land management rights transfer centers to provide services such as policy consultation, information release, and contract signing for both sides of the transfer. Farmers are the subjects of agricultural land management and transfer. Their behaviors are affected by their psychology to some extent. In the long-term, dynamic, and gradual process of agricultural land transfer, it is particularly important to respect farmers’ wishes, pay attention to farmers’ psychology, and guide farmers’ behavior. However, only a few written contracts were signed. Most are verbal agreements of spontaneous or collective land transfers. The verbal agreements auto-execute to some extent within certain limits. The goals of farmers in farmland transfer are diversified, and their cognition, willingness and psychological identity affect the performance of the contract and the effect of transfer.
Subjects and Methods
The psychological contract of agricultural land transfer can be defined as the transferor and transferee of agricultural land transfer. Through a certain psychological suggestion mode, through the subjective cognition and understanding of the rights and obligations of both parties, rather than the direct explicit expression, a contract relationship of rights and obligations is formed. The party awarding contract and the contractor are the subjects of agricultural land transfer. Therefore, the subjects of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer include farmers, village collectives and enterprises, all of whom have equal status, forming their own psychological contracts. The forming process of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer includes four steps. Step one is cognition and judgment. Both parties to the transfer are aware of and judge their own rights and obligations based on external environmental information and their own circumstances. Step two is psychological expectations. Before information is transmitted, both sides of the transmission transform cognition and judgment into psychological expectations. The third step is to convey psychological expectations. Both sides of transfer transmit psychological expectations by means of direct patterns, such as oral form and written form, and implicit ways, such as perception and comprehension. Step four is the formation of the psychological contract. Both sides of transfer reciprocally admit information of psychological expectations transmitted in implicit ways, forming psychological contracts. If they can’t come to an agreement on psychological contracts, a new four-step cycle is entered.
The forming of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer is shown in Figure 1. First, farmers’ behavior background, such as the experiences of land lease and transfer, the targets of land transfer and education, has an effect on the building of psychological contracts and its type. On the one hand, the farmers who have the experience of land transfer and get high benefits from it are much more motivated than those who don’t have that experience or ever have dissension while transferring. On the other hand, the targets of transfer and the education level of farmers affect the type of psychological contracts. Second, Farmers’ subjective norms, mainly reflected in the difference in folk customs, will form various communication modes and take different measures to deal with breaching contracts while transferring. Third, farmers’ behavior cognition reflects in their comprehension of the capability of executing contracts, including bargaining power, decision-making level and managing modes of the rent. The ability of behavior cognition and control of farmers has a positive influence on their behavior intention and happened.
According to the above results, in order to promote the reposeful transfer and orderly development of agricultural land, the following suggestions are proposed: The first is to improve the agricultural land transfer policy system, establish and improve the institutional environment for agricultural land transfer, create conditions for the establishment of farmers’ behavioral psychological contracts in the process of agricultural land transfers, and guide farmers to establish relationship psychological contracts. The second is to improve the market system, properly cultivate and develop agricultural land transfer intermediaries, reduce transaction costs, and reduce the probability of farmers’ psychological contracts being broken. The third is to guide farmers to establish a positive agricultural land transfer psychology based on their resource endowments such as labor force quality and cultural quality, and encourage farmers to make agricultural land transfer decisions such as subcontracting, leasing, reselling, and interchanging.
Psychological contracts of agricultural land transfer forming
The present study aimed to (i) evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a designed FFQ, (ii) apply the FFQ for estimating the dietary intakes of four flavonols and two flavones in female adolescents and (iii) explain their major dietary sources.
The reproducibility between the first and second FFQ administrations (1 year interval) was estimated using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The validity of the first FFQ relative to the average of four three-day 24 h dietary recalls (24-HR) from four seasons was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Using a flavonoid content database, the individual flavonol and flavone intakes were calculated and the major food sources were estimated.
Middle school in Suihua area of Heilongjiang Province, northern China.
Female adolescents (n 887) aged 12–18 years.
Better reproducibility and validity were obtained in the present study. The flavonol and flavone intakes were 16·29 and 4·31 mg/d, respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major contributors (26·8 % and 23·7 %, respectively) to the total intake of flavonols and flavones. The main food sources of flavonols and flavones were apples (14·1 %), followed by potatoes (7·5 %), lettuce (7·3 %) and oranges (7·3 %).
The dietary flavonol and flavone intakes among female adolescents in northern China were similar to those reported in several countries, but significant differences were observed in the food sources ascribed to the geographical location and dietary characteristics.
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4–6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were <80 % of the dietary reference intakes in both groups. In addition, the proportions of vitamin C and Ca intake deficiencies in the autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (ZWH) and BMI for age Z-score (ZBMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.
In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) and explored the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA in adolescent girls. A total of 1037 adolescent girls from Suihua, China were enrolled. Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori were measured. Participants with IDA and co-existing H. pylori infection (n 80) who had an intake of >25 mg/d of Fe were assigned randomly to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group were administered a 12-week course of oral EDTA–Na–Fe (60 mg Fe/dose, three times a week) and a 2-week course of colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Subjects in the control group were administered EDTA–Na–Fe alone. Hb, SF and sTfR were reassessed 3 months after the 12-week regimen ended. Prevalence of anaemia, Fe deficiency (defined as SF < 12·0 μg/l), IDA and H. pylori infection in the population of 1037 was 19·5, 40·4, 17·1 and 31·2 %, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the IDA group was 46·9 %, while the non-anaemic group had 28·1 % prevalence. A significant increase in Hb and SF and a decrease in sTfR value were found in the intervention group and the H. pylori-negative group. Findings suggest that IDA is still one of the prominent problems in adolescent girls. There is an association between H. pylori infection and IDA. Treatment of H. pylori infection is associated with a more rapid response to oral Fe therapy.
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