To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cooperation among militant organizations contributes to capability but also presents security risks. This is particularly the case when organizations face substantial repression from the state. As a consequence, for cooperation to emerge and persist when it is most valuable, militant groups must have means of committing to cooperation even when the incentives to defect are high. We posit that shared ideology plays this role by providing community monitoring, authority structures, trust, and transnational networks. We test this theory using new, expansive, time-series data on relationships between militant organizations from 1950 to 2016, which we introduce here. We find that when groups share an ideology, and especially a religion, they are more likely to sustain material cooperation in the face of state repression. These findings contextualize and expand upon research demonstrating that connections between violent nonstate actors strongly shape their tactical and strategic behavior.
Our aim was to develop a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocol to augment treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). This protocol focused specifically upon fear of positive evaluation (FPE). To our knowledge, this is the first protocol that has been designed to systematically target FPE.
To test the feasibility of a brief (two-session) CBT protocol for FPE and report proof-of-principle data in the form of effect sizes.
Seven patients with a principal diagnosis of SAD were recruited to participate. Following a pre-treatment assessment, patients were randomized to either (a) an immediate CBT condition (n = 3), or (b) a comparable wait-list (WL) period (2 weeks; n = 4). Two WL patients also completed the CBT protocol following the WL period (delayed CBT condition). Patients completed follow-up assessments 1 week after completing the protocol.
A total of five patients completed the brief, FPE-specific CBT protocol (two of the seven patients were wait-listed only and did not complete delayed CBT). All five patients completed the protocol and provided 1-week follow-up data. CBT patients demonstrated large reductions in FPE-related concerns as well as overall social anxiety symptoms, whereas WL patients demonstrated an increase in FPE-related concerns.
Our brief FPE-specific CBT protocol is feasible to use and was associated with large FPE-specific and social anxiety symptom reductions. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment report that has focused on systematic treatment of FPE in patients with SAD. Our protocol warrants further controlled evaluation.
This study sought to conduct a comprehensive search for genetic risk of cognitive decline in the context of geriatric depression.
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (NCODE) study.
Longitudinal, naturalistic follow-up study.
Older depressed adults, both outpatients and inpatients, receiving care at an academic medical center.
The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery was administered to the study participants at baseline and a minimum of twice within a subsequent 3-year period in order to measure cognitive decline. A GWAS analysis was conducted to identify genetic variation that is associated with baseline and change in the CERAD Total Score (CERAD-TS) in NCODE.
The GWAS of baseline CERAD-TS revealed a significant association with an intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 6, rs17662598, that surpassed adjustment for multiple testing (p = 3.7 × 10−7; false discovery rate q = 0.0371). For each additional G allele, average baseline CERAD-TS decreased by 8.656 points. The most significant SNP that lies within a gene was rs11666579 in SLC27A1 (p = 1.1 × 10−5). Each additional copy of the G allele was associated with an average decrease of baseline CERAD-TS of 4.829 points. SLC27A1 is involved with processing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an endogenous neuroprotective compound in the brain. Decreased levels of DHA have been associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The most significant SNP associated with CERAD-TS decline over time was rs73240021 in GRXCR1 (p = 1.1 × 10−6), a gene previously linked with deafness. However, none of the associations within genes survived adjustment for multiple testing.
Our GWAS of cognitive function and decline among individuals with late-life depression (LLD) has identified promising candidate genes that, upon replication in other cohorts of LLD, may be potential biomarkers for cognitive decline and suggests DHA supplementation as a possible therapy of interest.
Education is growing to a European level with the development of student exchanges. The EFPT Exchange Programme is the first psychiatric exchange programme to be developed in Europe. It was launched in 2011 by the EFPT Exchange Programme Working Group.
To provide European psychiatric trainees with the possibility of intercultural professional experience with a simplified exchange procedure.
To promote acquaintance of different health systems and psychiatric practices as well as cooperation among trainees, with a focus on individual experience.
The programme is run by trainees, for trainees, and provides observatory internships of 2-6 weeks in psychiatric units accredited for education. We collected systematic online feedback on participant satisfaction, as well as data on countries of residence, countries of exchange and number of applicants per phase.
Since 2011, the program has extended to 11 countries and offers 50 placements in diverse clinical psychiatry units accredited for education. Six phases of exchange have been conducted, with a total of 85 exchanges. We observed an average of 34 applications per phase with 70% of applicants originating from: Turkey, UK, Portugal, Ireland, Romania, France, Croatia. 46% of applicants were accepted for exchange. The large number of trainees underlines the richness of professional exchange and the positive effect on personal development.
The succes of this programme among trainees should encourage the promotion of mobility in psychiatric training.
The interest in experiencing training abroad has grown and its benefits have been progressively recognized. For these reasons, several psychiatric trainees seek to extend their competencies, skills and knowledge through these exchange opportunities, such as the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) Exchange Programme.
With this work we intend to describe these international experiences of being acquainted with a different health system and psychiatry training programme.
Reflect on the impact of these experiences, considering on how these can be used to benefit the patient care provided across countries, further to the professional and personal individual benefits that colleagues gain.
Presenting the testimonials of junior doctors from abroad that have had the opportunity to observe and collaborate in the current system of the United Kingdom.
The EFPT Exchange Programme is an excellent opportunity for psychiatry trainees to share experiences, knowledge and good practices. The cultural and social framework of psychiatry certainly has an impact on the approach to mental health problems, and being knowledgeable of these differences can provide benefits not only to the junior doctors who complete these exchanges abroad, but also to their colleagues working at their hosting institutions that become acquainted with different realities through their presence and feedback.
The benefits of these exchange mobility experiences are unequivocal. Therefore, it is fundamental to share these experiences and promote these opportunities.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A primary barrier to translation of clinical research discoveries into care delivery and population health is the lack of sustainable infrastructure bringing researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and communities together to reduce silos in knowledge and action. As National Institutes of Healthʼs (NIH) mechanism to advance translational research, Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) awardees are uniquely positioned to bridge this gap. Delivering on this promise requires sustained collaboration and alignment between research institutions and public health and healthcare programs and services. We describe the collaboration of seven CTSA hubs with city, county, and state healthcare and public health organizations striving to realize this vision together. Partnership representatives convened monthly to identify key components, common and unique themes, and barriers in academic–public collaborations. All partnerships aligned the activities of the CTSA programs with the needs of the city/county/state partners, by sharing resources, responding to real-time policy questions and training needs, promoting best practices, and advancing community-engaged research, and dissemination and implementation science to narrow the knowledge-to-practice gap. Barriers included competing priorities, differing timelines, bureaucratic hurdles, and unstable funding. Academic–public health/health system partnerships represent a unique and underutilized model with potential to enhance community and population health.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
Every nuclear weapons program for decades has relied extensively on illicit imports of nuclear-related technologies. This book offers the most detailed public account of how states procure what they need to build nuclear weapons, what is currently being done to stop them, and how global efforts to prevent such trade could be strengthened. While illicit nuclear trade can never be stopped completely, effective steps to block illicit purchases of nuclear technology have sometimes succeeded in slowing nuclear weapons programs and increasing their costs, giving diplomacy more chance to work. Hence, this book argues, preventing illicit transfers wherever possible is a key element of an effective global non-proliferation strategy.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Militant groups, like all organizations, carefully consider the tactics and strategies that they employ. We assess why some militant organizations diversify into multiple tactics while others limit themselves to just one or a few. This is an important puzzle because militant organizations that employ multiple approaches to violence are more likely to stretch state defenses, achieve tactical success, and threaten state security. We theorize that militant organizations respond to external pressure by diversifying their tactics to ensure their survival and continued relevance, and that the primary sources of such pressure are government repression and interorganizational competition. We find consistent support for these propositions in tests of both the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior (MAROB) data sets. We bolster these findings with an additional specification that employs ethnic fractionalization in the first stage of a multi-process recursive model. These findings are relevant not only for academic research but for policy as well. While it is difficult for countries to anticipate the character of future tactical choices, they may be able to anticipate which groups will most readily diversify and thereby complicate counterterrorism efforts.
Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare sinonasal malignancy, with poorly defined treatment protocols. Management at a tertiary centre was retrospectively evaluated to inform future treatment and follow up.
Cases treated with curative intent (2000–2014) were included. Data were collected, and overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated.
Eleven cases were identified, with a median follow up of 87 months. One patient was Kadish stage A, one was stage B, eight were stage C and one was stage D. The latter patient underwent chemoradiotherapy alone. The remaining patients proceeded to: endoscopic-assisted wide local excision (n = 2), anterior craniofacial resection (n = 4) or endoscopic craniofacial resection (n = 4). No patients had primary nodal disease or elective neck treatment. One patient had neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Six patients had post-operative radiotherapy; three received adjuvant chemotherapy. Two patients had late cervical node failure, and proceeded to neck dissection and post-operative radiotherapy. Two patients had late local recurrence. Ten-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 68.2 and 46.7 per cent, respectively.
Longer-term follow up is supported given the incidence of late regional and local recurrence. Prophylactic treatment of cervical nodes in locally advanced disease is an area for further investigation.