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The coexistence of underweight (UW) and overweight (OW)/obese (OB) at the population level is known to affect iron deficiency (ID) anaemia (IDA), but how the weight status affects erythropoiesis during pregnancy is less clear at a population scale. This study investigated associations between the pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI) and erythropoiesis-related nutritional deficiencies.
Anthropometry, blood biochemistry and 24-h dietary recall data were collected during prenatal care visits. The weight status was defined based on the pBMI. Mild nutrition deficiency-related erythropoiesis was defined if individuals had an ID, folate depletion or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
The Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (Pregnant NAHSIT 2017–2019).
We included 1456 women aged 20 to 45 years with singleton pregnancies.
Among these pregnant women, 9·6 % were UW, and 29·2 % were either OW (15·8 %) or OB (13·4 %). A U-shaped association between the pBMI and IDA was observed, with decreased odds (OR; 95 % CI) for OW subjects (0·6; 95 % CI (0·4, 0·9)) but increased odds for UW (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 2·0)) and OB subjects (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 1·8)). The pBMI was positively correlated with the prevalence of a mild nutritional deficiency. Compared to normal weight, OB pregnant women had 3·4-fold (3·4; 95 % CI (1·4, 8·1)) higher odds for multiple mild nutritional deficiencies, while UW individuals had lowest odds (0·3; 95 % CI (0·1, 1·2)). A dietary analysis showed negative relationships of pBMI with energy, carbohydrates, protein, Fe and folate intakes, but positive relationship with fat intakes.
The pre-pregnancy weight status can possibly serve as a good nutritional screening tool for preventing IDA during pregnancy.
We aim to examine the relation of several folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-mTHF], unmetabolized folic acid [UMFA], and MeFox) with kidney function and albuminuria, which remained uncertain. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 18,757 participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2018. The kidney outcomes were reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), microalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g), and macroalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 300 mg/g).Overall, there were significant inverse associations between serum 5-mTHF and kidney outcomes with significant lower prevalence of reduced eGFR (OR, 0.71; 95%CI: 0.57-0.87) and macroalbuminuria (OR, 0.65; 95%CI: 0.46-0.91) in participants in quartile 3-4 (vs. quartile 1-2; ≥34.0 vs. <34.0nmol/L; both P for trend across quartiles <0.05). In contrast, there were significant positive relationship between serum UMFA and kidney outcomes with significant higher prevalence of reduced eGFR in participants in quartile 2-4 (vs. quartile 1; ≥0.5 vs. <0.5nmol/L; OR, 2.12; 95%CI: 1.45-3.12; P for trend <0.001) and higher prevalence of macroalbuminuria in participants in quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1-3; ≥ 1.0 vs. <1.0 nmol/L; OR, 1.46; 95%CI: 1.06-2.01; P for trend <0.001). However, there was no significant associations of 5-mTHF and UMFA with microalbuminuria. In addition, there were significant positive relationships of serum MeFox with reduced eGFR, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (all P for trend <0.01). In conclusion, higher 5-mTHF level, along with lower UMFA and MeFox level, were associated with lower prevalence of kidney outcomes, which may help counsel future clinical trials and nutritional guidelines regarding the folate supplement.
Chest tube drainage placement, a standard procedure in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, was reported to cause perioperative complications like pain and increased risk of infection. The present study was designed to evaluate the necessity of chest tube drainage inpaediatric thoracoscopic surgery.
Thirty children admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to April 2020 were included in the current study and were grouped as the tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with chest tube drainage) and the non-tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without chest tube drainage). Laboratory hemogram index, length of hospitalisation, post-operative performance of involved children, and psychological acceptance of indicated therapy by guardians of the involved children were investigated.
Laboratory examination revealed that the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the non-tube group was significantly higher than that in the tube group on post-operative day 1 (p < 0.05). Children in the non-tube group had a shorter length of hospitalisation (7–9 days) than that of patients from the tube group. Additionally, the frequency of crying of children was decreased and psychological acceptance by patients’ guardians was improved in the non-tube group when compared with the tube group.
This study showed that chest tube drainage placement may not be necessary in several cases of paediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Rapid recovery with decreased perioperative complications in children operated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without tube placement could also reduce the burden of the family and society both economically and psychologically.
The geometry of compound sessile drops at equilibrium on a flat substrate can exhibit a variety of complicated morphological configurations. In this paper, we first investigate the configuration boundaries of the compound sessile drops in a wide parameter space, where a specific configuration is not stable outside its boundaries. Then, we focus on the transitions among the axisymmetric configurations, i.e. encapsulation, lens and collars. The configuration transitions result from the variation of the wettability of the substrate and the volume ratio of the two component droplets. With the help of theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain previously unidentified criteria for the onset of configuration transition, identify the irreversible and reversible configuration transitions, reveal the dynamic behaviours of configuration transitions that are not accessible to theoretical analysis, and provide a further step towards the ultimate purpose of such work, which is the controllable reconfiguration of the compound sessile drops.
Epilobium belongs to the family Onagraceae, which consists of approximately 200 species distributed worldwide, and some species have been used as medicinal plants. Epilobium nankotaizanense is an endemic and endangered herb that grows in the high mountains in Taiwan at an elevation of more than 3300 m. Alpine herbs are severely threatened by climate change, which leads to a reduction in their habitats and population sizes. However, only a few studies have addressed genetic diversity and population genetics. In the present study, we developed a new set of microsatellite markers for E. nankotaizanense using high-throughput genome sequencing data. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 30 individuals collected from three natural populations. These loci were successfully amplified, and polymorphisms were observed in E. nankotaizanense. The number of alleles per locus (A) ranged from 2.000 to 3.000, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.929 and from 0.034 to 0.631, respectively. The developed polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of E. nankotaizanense as well as for developing an effective conservation strategy for this species and facilitating germplasm collections and sustainable utilization of other Epilobium species.
The most important issue for the clinical application of sarcopenic obesity (SO) is the lack of a consensus definition. The aim of the present study was to determine the best measurement for SO by estimating the association between various definitions and the risk of falls and metabolic syndrome (MS). We studied a community of 765 adults aged 65 years and older in 2015–2017. Sarcopenia obesity was measured by sarcopenia (defined by low muscle mass with either low handgrip strength or low gait speed or both) plus obesity (defined by waist circumference, body fat percentage and BMI). The MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationships between sarcopenia obesity and risk of fall and MS. In the analysis of the fall risk with SO defined by waist circumference, the participants with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were treated as the reference group. The OR to fall in participants with SO was 10·16 (95 % CI 2·71, 38·13) after adjusting for confounding covariates. In the analysis of the risk of the MS between participants with individual components of sarcopenia coupled with obesity defined by waist circumference, the risk was statistically significant for low gait speed (OR: 7·19; 95 % CI 3·61, 14·30) and low grip strength (OR: 9·19; 95 % CI 5·00, 16·91). A combination of low grip strength and abdominal obesity for identifying SO may be a more precise and practical method for predicting target populations with unfavourable health risks, such as falls risk and MS.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) affects 10-20% of women with breast cancer and is biologically more aggressive than other subtypes. The novel compound we have developed, DL7076, would give clinicians a vital strategy to improve the commonly used cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) regimen in the treatment of TNBC. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this research project is to develop a novel compound which can activate both 1) the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and subsequently enhance the CYP2B6-mediated activation of CPA, and 2) the nuclear factor erythroid- related factor-2 (Nrf2) leading to the cardiomyocyte protection from DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following the identification of the compound candidate, DL7076 was evaluated for tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2 using qPCR, western blot analysis, and luciferase reporter assays.
Further, we have developed a multicellular coculture model incorporating human primary hepatocytes for metabolism, TNBC spheroids as the target, and cardiomyocytes as a side target of DOX. We have investigated the anticancer effects of CPA/DOX on TNBC cells and the toxic effects on cardiomyocytes with/without a CAR-Nrf2 activator, in a multicellular environment where hepatic metabolism is well-retained. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that our dual activator of CAR and Nrf2, DL7076, exhibits tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2. Inclusion of DL7076 in combination with the CPA/DOX regimen improves anticancer efficacy, through the subsequent increase in the formation of the active CPA metabolite. With the addition of DL7076, DOX-mediated off-target cardiotoxicity was markedly reduced.
Lastly, utilizing the novel coculture system with human primary hepatocytes, TNBC spheroids, and cardiomyocytes, the inclusion of DL7076 to the CPA/DOX regimen shows decreased spheroid viability and improved cardiomyocyte viability and function. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that DL7076 can facilitate DOX/CPA containing regimens by increasing CAR-mediated metabolism and subsequent CPA bioactivation while selectively protecting cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced toxicity. This research is expected to translate our basic scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for women with TNBC.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
Depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are associated with each other but their relationship remains unclear. We aim to determine whether genetic predisposition to depression are causally linked to CVD [including coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF)].
Using summary statistics from the largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or GWAS meta-analysis of depression (primary analysis: n = 500 199), broad depression (help-seeking behavior for problems with nerves, anxiety, tension or depression; secondary analysis: n = 322 580), CAD (n = 184 305), MI (n = 171 875), stroke (n = 446 696) and AF (n = 1 030 836), genetic correlation was tested between two depression phenotypes and CVD [MI, stroke and AF (not CAD as its correlation was previously confirmed)]. Causality was inferred between correlated traits by Mendelian Randomization analyses.
Both depression phenotypes were genetically correlated with MI (depression: rG = 0.169; p = 9.03 × 10−9; broad depression: rG = 0.123; p = 1 × 10−4) and AF (depression: rG = 0.112; p = 7.80 × 10−6; broad depression: rG = 0.126; p = 3.62 × 10−6). Genetically doubling the odds of depression was causally associated with increased risk of CAD (OR = 1.099; 95% CI 1.031–1.170; p = 0.004) and MI (OR = 1.146; 95% CI 1.070–1.228; p = 1.05 × 10−4). Adjustment for blood lipid levels/smoking status attenuated the causality between depression and CAD/MI. Null causal association was observed for CVD on depression. A similar pattern of results was observed in the secondary analysis for broad depression.
Genetic predisposition to depression may have positive causal roles on CAD/MI. Genetic susceptibility to self-awareness of mood problems may be a strong causal risk factor of CAD/MI. Blood lipid levels and smoking may potentially mediate the causal pathway. Prevention and early diagnosis of depression are important in the management of CAD/MI.
Evaluate associations between orange juice (OJ) consumption and anthropometric parameters.
Prospective cohort study assessing the association between OJ intake and changes in BMI and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) using mixed linear regression.
Children from the Growing Up Today Study II (n 7301), aged 9–16 years at enrollment.
OJ consumption was positively associated with 2-year change in HAZ in girls (mean (se)): 0·03 (0·01) for non-consumers, 0·03 (0·02) for 1–3 glasses/month, 0·06 (0·01) for 1–6 glasses/week and 0·09 (0·02) for ≥1 glass/d after full adjustment (Ptrend = 0·02). However, OJ consumption was not associated with 2-year change in BMI percentile (kg/m2, mean (se)): –0·44 (0·36) for non-consumers, 0·20 (0·41) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·04 (0·34) for 1–6 glasses/week and –0·77 (0·62) for ≥1 glass/d in girls, Ptrend = 0·81; –0·94 (0·53) for non-consumers, –1·68 (0·52) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·81 (0·38) for 1–6 glasses per week and –1·12 (0·61) for ≥1 glass/d in boys, Ptrend = 0·49.
OJ consumption was favourably associated with height growth but unrelated to excess weight gain. OJ may be a useful alternative to whole fruit in the event that whole fruit intake is insufficient.
Having enterprises engaged in environmentally friendly behavior is an important part of reducing negative environmental impacts. This study makes a quantitative analysis against the backdrop of China's transitional economic system. The results show that politically-connected enterprises significantly reduce environmental expenditure, but this only holds for state-owned enterprises; private enterprises with political connections spend significantly more. Analysis of the efficiency of environmental expenditure indicates that, for private enterprises, environmental spending is used as a way to maintain political connections, with rent-seeking as the likely motivation. Politically-connected private enterprises have not reduced their emissions to the same extent as state-owned enterprises, despite increased expenditure. Given the scale of environmental degradation in China during a period of massive economic and social upheaval, the results of this analysis provide a quantitative case for policy change: governments should shift focus to the results that environmental spending produces.
Human fatigue is a major risk factor in transportation that contributes, directly or indirectly, to a large number of traffic accidents. Though many studies have investigated fatigue-inducing factors in transportation to manage human fatigue more efficiently, there are limited studies related to vessel traffic service (VTS). To fill this gap, this work aims to determine the key causal factors and symptoms of human fatigue with a focus on VTS operations. Achieving this aim is hindered by the problems of no standard definition of task-related fatigue and limited data sources. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel definition of task-related human fatigue, a task-driven approach for identifying causal factors and a causal network-based approach for selecting key causal factors. Twelve key causal factors of human fatigue in VTS were identified and analysed. In addition, it was found that VTS operators suffered from multidimensional fatigue, especially physical fatigue. The results provide a foundation and future directions for designing interventions to manage human fatigue.
We investigated the adoption of World Health Organization (WHO) naming of COVID-19 into the respective languages among the Group of Twenty (G20) countries, and the variation of COVID-19 naming in the Chinese language across different health authorities. On May 7, 2020, we identified the websites of the national health authorities of the G20 countries to identify naming of COVID-19 in their respective languages, and the websites of the health authorities in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and Singapore and identify their Chinese name for COVID-19. Among the G20 nations, Argentina, China, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Turkey do not use the literal translation of COVID-19 in their official language(s) to refer to COVID-19, as they retain “novel” in the naming of this disease. China is the only G20 nation that names COVID-19 a pneumonia. Among Chinese-speaking jurisdictions, Hong Kong and Singapore governments follow the WHO’s recommendation and adopt the literal translation of COVID-19 in Chinese. In contrast, mainland China, Macau, and Taiwan refer to COVID-19 as a type of pneumonia in Chinese. We urge health authorities worldwide to adopt naming in their native languages that are consistent with WHO’s naming of COVID-19.
In probing quantum materials, thermal transport is less appreciated than electrical transport. This article aims to show the pivotal role that thermal transport may play in understanding quantum materials—longitudinal thermal transport reflects itinerant quasiparticles, even in an electrical insulating phase, while transverse thermal transport such as the thermal Hall and Nernst effects is tightly linked to nontrivial topology. We discuss three examples—quantum spin liquids wherein thermal transport identifies its existence, superconductors wherein thermal transport reveals the superconducting gap structure, and topological Weyl semimetals where the anomalous Nernst effect is a consequence of nontrivial Berry curvature. We conclude with an outlook on the unique insights thermal transport may offer to probe a much broader category of quantum phenomena.
Low-dimensional superconductors have been at the forefront of physics research due to their rich physical properties such as high-temperature (Tc) superconductivity. In this article, we review the field of emergent high-Tc superconductivity at interfaces of heterostructures, focusing on the experimental advances and its physical mechanism. Charge transfer between constituent materials leads to two-dimensional carrier confinement that facilitates occurrence of superconductivity at the interface. We discuss the similarities between bulk high-Tc superconductors and interface systems, as well as implications from a survey of interface superconductors. We expect that the hybrid heterostructures and the ability to manipulate them on an atomic scale could be an enormously fertile ground to explore superconductivity with higher critical temperature Tc.
Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of
and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where
denotes the celerity of the peak wave and
denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of
. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.
The hygiene hypothesis posits that the decreased incidence of parasitic infection in developed countries may underlie an increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in these countries. As unique inflammation modulator of intracellular parasitism, Trichinella spiralis, or its excretory–secretory (ES) product, shows improved responses to allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis and autoimmune encephalomyelitis by exerting immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells in animal models. Research has shown that T. spiralis differs from other helminths in manipulation of the host immune response not only by well-known characteristics of its life cycle, but also by its inflammation modulation pathway. How the parasite achieves inflammation modulation has not been fully elucidated yet. This review will generalize the mechanism and focuses on ES immunomodulatory molecules of T. spiralis that may be important for developing new therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.
The myxozoan genus Unicapsula Davis, 1924 (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) is characterized as having one functional polar capsule (PC) and two rudimentary PCs in a three-valved myxospore. The plasmodia of Unicapsula spp. grow either in the myofibres or in the gills, oesophageal walls and urinary organs of marine fish. Few studies have investigated the taxonomy of Unicapsula spp. including the type species Unicapsula muscularis. Accordingly, the taxonomy of the genus was explored in the present study by using 15 new isolates of seven Unicapsula spp. (U. muscularis, U. galeata, U. andersenae, U. pyramidata, U. pflugfelderi, and two new species) that had formed pseudocysts in the trunk myofibres of commercial fish collected in southern China and Japan from November 2015 to January 2019. Two new species Unicapsula trigona n. sp., and Unicapsula motomurai n. sp. exhibited unique myxospore morphologies (semi-triangular and spherical myxospores, respectively) and 18S and 28S rDNA sequences that were distinct from those of the other Unicapsula spp. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S and 28S rDNA sequences confirmed the monophyletic status of Unicapsula.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Archaeobotanical studies tend to concentrate on the evidence for specialised agricultural food production, with less attention directed towards the use of plant foods within hunter-gatherer contexts. Here, the authors present evidence for the exploitation of Canarium nuts from four late hunter-gatherer sites in southern China. Canarium nuts contributed to the inhabitants’ diets from as early as 9000 cal BP. They also identify new uses of Canarium, c. 4500–4400 cal BP, as ritual offerings in the context of the introduction of rice and millet farming. The results are examined in the context of Canarium use across the wider Asia-Pacific region.