Two methods based on fractal image analysis were used to extract the architectural features of the anisotropic structure of trabecular bone from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of sliced bone samples in order to assess the bone’s medical condition. Two methods applied were Box-Counting (BC) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Tests with synthetic images of known fractal dimension aided in the interpretation of the fractal dimension (FD) profiles. Samples from L3 vertebrae were removed from Mexican male donors at the time of necropsy and evaluated using computed axial tomography (CAT) scans. Three sliced samples in normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic conditions were identified in order to compare both methods across a range of samples. The three-dimensional projection of the FD profile reflected a multifractal behavior of the trabecular architecture and clearly showed the differences in texture between the three conditions studied: normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic. In addition, the results suggest that the FFT method provides an accurate and consistent estimated for characterizing trabecular bone than the BC method.