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The coexistence of underweight (UW) and overweight (OW)/obese (OB) at the population level is known to affect iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), but how the weight status affects erythropoiesis during pregnancy is less clear at a population scale. This study investigated associations between the pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) and erythropoiesis-related nutritional deficiencies.
Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, and 24-h dietary recall data were collected during prenatal care visits. The weight status was defined based on the pBMI. Mild nutrition deficiency-related erythropoiesis was defined if individuals had an ID, folate depletion, or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
The Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (Pregnant NAHSIT 2017-2019).
We included 1456 women aged 20 to 45 years with singleton pregnancies.
Among these pregnant women, 9.6% were UW, and 29.2% were either OW (15.8%) or OB (13.4%). A U-shaped association between the pBMI and IDA was observed, with decreased odds (OR; 95% CI) for OW subjects (0.6; 0.4˜0.9) but increased odds for UW (1.2; 0.8˜2.0) and OB subjects (1.2; 0.8˜1.8). The pBMI was positively correlated with the prevalence of a mild nutritional deficiency. Compared to normal weight (NW), OB pregnant women had 3.4-fold (3.4; 1.4˜8.1) higher odds for multiple mild nutritional deficiencies, while UW individuals had lowest odds (0.3; 0.1-1.2). A dietary analysis showed negative relationships of pBMI with energy, carbohydrates, protein, iron, and folate intakes, but positive relationship with fat intakes.
The pre-pregnancy weight status can possibly serve as a good nutritional screening tool for preventing IDA during pregnancy.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate SARS-CoV-2-exposed masks and respirators. We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The two arms of the study included: 1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment, and 2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination (5CD) to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on three N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and two medical mask (MM) models. We inoculated FFR and MM materials with three coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and treated with 10 µM MB and exposed to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5CD using multiple US and international test methods and compared to the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all three coronaviruses with 99.8 - to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and MMs tested. FFR and MM integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas one FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating three tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5CD. MBL decontamination is effective, low-cost and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in all-resource settings.
The presence of excessive mirror overflow in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is discussed in numerous published reports. These reports, however, include a limited age range in their samples. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of diagnosis and sex on mirror overflow and standard deviation (SD) of tap time in children with and without ADHD across a larger age range (5–12 years) of children.
One-hundred and forty-eight children with ADHD and 112 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children completed a finger sequencing task. Mirror overflow, SD of tap time, and mean tap time were measured using finger twitch transducers.
Results reveal a significant diagnostic effect on mirror overflow such that boys and girls with ADHD demonstrate increased overflow compared to same-sex TD children. Boys with ADHD demonstrated more variable tap times compared to TD boys; no diagnostic effect was observed in the girls.
Boys with ADHD exhibit anomalous motor variability; girls with ADHD show similar levels of variability as TD girls. Boys and girls with ADHD exhibit similar levels of excessive mirror overflow. This lack of sex differences on mirror overflow is distinct from reports finding sex effects on overflow and could result from an examination of a broader age range than is included in prior reports. Adolescent data would provide a greater understanding of the trajectory of anomalous mirror overflow across development. Examination of functional and structural connectivity would expand the current understanding of the neurobiological foundation of motor overflow.
This paper reports the dangers of an ingested metal wire bristle from a barbeque brush, which resulted in oesophageal perforation.
A 49-year-old gentleman presented to the emergency department with foreign body sensation and odynophagia after having consumed barbequed lamb for lunch. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a thin linear opacity near the thoracic inlet. The object could not be visualised on emergent rigid oesophagoscopy. Subsequent neck exploration enabled localisation of a retropharyngeal abscess and a thin wire bristle from a barbeque brush.
Always consider the utensils employed in food preparation as a differential in ingested foreign bodies. Thin wire objects have a high propensity to migrate and result in complications, hence urgent intervention is vital.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are trained to place endotracheal tubes (ETTs) in the prehospital setting when indicated. Endotracheal tube cuffs are traditionally inflated with 10cc of air to provide adequate seal against the tracheal lumen. There is literature suggesting that many ETTs are inflated well beyond the accepted safe pressures of 20-30cmH2O, leading to potential complications including ischemia, necrosis, scarring, and stenosis of the tracheal wall. Currently, EMS providers do not routinely check ETT cuff pressures. It was hypothesized that the average ETT cuff pressure of patients arriving at the study site who were intubated by EMS exceeds the safe pressure range of 20-30cmH2O.
While ETT cuff inflation is necessary to close the respiratory system, thus preventing air leaks and aspiration, there is evidence to suggest that over-inflated ETT cuffs can cause long-term complications. The purpose of this study is to characterize the cuff pressures of ETTs placed by EMS providers.
This project was a single center, prospective observational study. Endotracheal tube cuff pressures were measured and recorded for adult patients intubated by EMS providers prior to arrival at a large, urban, tertiary care center over a nine-month period. All data were collected by respiratory therapists utilizing a cuff pressure measurement device which had a detectable range of 0-100cmH2O and was designed as a syringe. Results including basic patient demographics, cuff pressure, tube size, and EMS service were recorded.
In total, 45 measurements from six EMS services were included with ETT sizes ranging from 6.5-8.0mm. Mean patient age was 52.2 years (67.7% male). Mean cuff pressure was 81.8cmH2O with a range of 15 to 100 and a median of 100. The mode was 100cmH2O; 40 out of 45 (88.9%) cuff pressures were above 30cmH2O. Linear regression showed no correlation between age and ETT cuff pressure or between ETT size and cuff pressure. Two-tailed T tests did not show a significant difference in the mean cuff pressure between female versus male patients.
An overwhelming majority of prehospital intubations are associated with elevated cuff pressures, and cuff pressure monitoring education is indicated to address this phenomenon.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Limited research has been conducted on the survival of men with castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC) with a pre-existing history of cardiovascular disease, receiving oral androgen signaling inhibitors. This study highlights all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality for elderly patients with CRPC with pre-existing history of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Inadequate knowledge is known about the survival of men with castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC) with pre-existing history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), receiving oral androgen signaling inhibitors (OASI). We compared all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality for elderly patients with CRPC with pre-existing history of CVD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: An active comparator, new user design, was used to identify 2,608 men older than age 65 years with CRPC using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database from 2011 to 2015. Patients were grouped into two analytical cohorts by CVD history. Within each analytical cohort patients were divided into two arms based on their new-user status (OASI vs. chemotherapy). All demographics and clinical characteristics were adjusted by inverse probability treatment weights (IPTWs). Unadjusted and IPTW-adjusted time-dependent Cox models, and Fine and Gray’s models were conducted to evaluate associations between OASI and all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nearly 64.5% of patients had pre-existing CVD. We observed a lower all-cause mortality in the pre-existing CVD cohort compared to the no pre-existing CVD cohort (IPTW-adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.59; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.64; IPTW-AHR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.78, respectively). Similarly, the prostate cancer specific-mortality was showed to be lower in the pre-existing CVD cohort compared to the no pre-existing CVD cohort when comparing OASI versus chemotherapy by the IPTW-adjusted time-dependent Fine and Gray’s models (IPTW-AHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.66; IPTW-AHR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.80, respectively). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: OASI showed a significant protective effect against all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality compared with chemotherapy; however, were less protective among patients without pre-existing CVD. Further studies are needed to investigate OASI in patients with and without pre-existing CVD.
We assessed long-term incidence and prevalence trends of dementia and parkinsonism across major ethnic and immigrant groups in Ontario.
Linking administrative databases, we established two cohorts (dementia 2001–2014 and parkinsonism 2001–2015) of all residents aged 20 to 100 years with incident diagnosis of dementia (N = 387,937) or parkinsonism (N = 59,617). We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism by immigrant status and ethnic groups (Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population). We assessed incidence and prevalence trends using Poisson regression and Cochran–Armitage trend tests.
Across selected ethnic groups, dementia incidence and prevalence were higher in long-term residents than recent or longer-term immigrants from 2001 to 2014. During this period, age- and sex-standardized incidence of dementia in Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population increased, respectively, among longer-term immigrants (by 41%, 58%, and 42%) and long-term residents (28%, 7%, and 4%), and to a lesser degree among recent immigrants. The small number of cases precluded us from assessing parkinsonism incidence trends. For Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population, respectively, prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism modestly increased over time among recent immigrants but significantly increased among longer-term immigrants (dementia: 134%, 217%, and 117%; parkinsonism: 55%, 54%, and 43%) and long-term residents (dementia: 97%, 132%, and 71%; parkinsonism: 18%, 30%, and 29%). Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appear to explain incidence trends, except for stroke and coronary artery disease as potential drivers of dementia incidence.
Recent immigrants across major ethnic groups in Ontario had considerably lower rates of dementia and parkinsonism than long-term residents, but this difference diminished with longer-term immigrants.
To investigate the influences of dietary riboflavin (RF) addition on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, eight rumen cannulated Holstein bulls were randomly allocated into four treatments in a repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Daily addition level of RF for each bull in control, low RF, medium RF and high RF was 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg, respectively. Increasing the addition level of RF, DM intake was not affected, average daily gain tended to be increased linearly and feed conversion ratio decreased linearly. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) increased linearly. Rumen pH decreased quadratically, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased quadratically. Acetate molar percentage and acetate:propionate ratio increased linearly, but propionate molar percentage and ammonia-N content decreased linearly. Rumen effective degradability of DM increased linearly, NDF increased quadratically but CP was unaltered. Activity of cellulase and populations of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant cellulolytic bacteria, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased linearly. Linear increase was observed for urinary total purine derivatives excretion. The data suggested that dietary RF addition was essential for rumen microbial growth, and no further increase in performance and rumen total VFA concentration was observed when increasing RF level from 600 to 900 mg/d in dairy bulls.
Family carers supporting an individual with psychosis often experience poorer mental health, however, little is known about specific risk factors among these carers. We investigated the associations between demographic, caregiving characteristics and mental health outcomes in family carers supporting an individual with psychosis and compared carers' outcomes with general population norms.
We analysed baseline data from the COPe-support randomised controlled trial of online psychoeducation and peer support for adult carers supporting an individual with psychosis between 2018 and 2020. We collected carers' demographic and health outcome data, including wellbeing using Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS as primary outcome), quality of life using EQ-5D-5L and caregiving experience assessed with Experience of Caregiving Inventory. We tested associations between carers' demographic and caregiving characteristics for each outcome in turn and meta-analysed carers' WEMWBS and EQ-5D-5L with Health Survey England (HSE) general population data from 2016 and 2017, respectively.
The 407 carers of people with psychosis had a mean WEMWBS score of 42.2 (s.d. 9.21) and their overall weighted pooled WEMWBS score was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) −8.6 to −6.0, p < 0.01) lower than the HSE general population sample, indicating carers have poorer mental wellbeing by more than double the minimum clinically important difference of 3 points on WEMWBS. Among all caring relationships, partners had poorer wellbeing compared to parents with lower WEMWBS score (−6.8, −16.9 to 3.3, p = 0.03). Single carers had significantly poorer wellbeing (−3.6, −5.6 to −1.5, p < 0.01) and a more negative caregiving experience than those who were cohabiting. Spending more than 35 h per week caregiving increased carers' negative experience significantly (p = 0.01).
Carers of people with psychosis have poorer mental health than non-carers. Partners, lone carers and those spending more than 35 h per week on caring were found to be most at risk of poor mental health. Based on the results, we advocate that the details of carers for individuals with psychosis should be added to the existing carers or severe mental illness registers at all general practitioner surgeries and for their wellbeing screened routinely. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to develop a predictive model to determine risk factors, hence to aid early identification of carers' support needs. Such understandings are also useful to inform tailored intervention development.
Bipolar disorder is associated with premature mortality, but evidence is mostly derived from Western countries. There has been no research evaluating shortened lifespan in bipolar disorder using life-years lost (LYLs), which is a recently developed mortality metric taking into account illness onset for life expectancy estimation. The current study aimed to examine the extent of premature mortality in bipolar disorder patients relative to the general population in Hong Kong (HK) in terms of standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and excess LYLs, and changes of mortality rate over time.
This population-based cohort study investigated excess mortality in 12 556 bipolar disorder patients between 2008 and 2018, by estimating all-cause and cause-specific SMRs, and LYLs. Trends in annual SMRs over the 11-year study period were assessed. Study data were retrieved from a territory-wide medical-record database of HK public healthcare services.
Patients had higher all-cause [SMR: 2.60 (95% CI: 2.45–2.76)], natural-cause [SMR: 1.90 (95% CI: 1.76–2.05)] and unnatural-cause [SMR: 8.63 (95% CI: 7.34–10.03)] mortality rates than the general population. Respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancers accounted for the majority of deaths. Men and women with bipolar disorder had 6.78 (95% CI: 6.00–7.84) years and 7.35 (95% CI: 6.75–8.06) years of excess LYLs, respectively. The overall mortality gap remained similar over time, albeit slightly improved in men with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder is associated with increased premature mortality and substantially reduced lifespan in a predominantly Chinese population, with excess deaths mainly attributed to natural causes. Persistent mortality gap underscores an urgent need for targeted interventions to improve physical health of patients with bipolar disorder.
There is compelling evidence for gradient effects of household income on school readiness. Potential mechanisms are described, yet the growth curve trajectory of maternal mental health in a child's early life has not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to examine the relationships between household incomes, maternal mental health trajectories from antenatal to the postnatal period, and school readiness.
Prospective data from 505 mother–child dyads in a birth cohort in Singapore were used, including household income, repeated measures of maternal mental health from pregnancy to 2-years postpartum, and a range of child behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive outcomes from 2 to 6 years of age. Antenatal mental health and its trajectory were tested as mediators in the latent growth curve models.
Household income was a robust predictor of antenatal maternal mental health and all child outcomes. Between children from the bottom and top household income quartiles, four dimensions of school readiness skills differed by a range of 0.52 (95% Cl: 0.23, 0.67) to 1.21 s.d. (95% CI: 1.02, 1.40). Thirty-eight percent of pregnant mothers in this cohort were found to have perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in the subclinical and clinical ranges. Poorer school readiness skills were found in children of these mothers when compared to those of mothers with little or no symptoms. After adjustment of unmeasured confounding on the indirect effect, antenatal maternal mental health provided a robust mediating path between household income and multiple school readiness outcomes (χ2 126.05, df 63, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.031, CFI = 0.980, SRMR = 0.034).
Pregnant mothers with mental health symptoms, particularly those from economically-challenged households, are potential targets for intervention to level the playing field of their children.
Although testing is widely regarded as critical to fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, what measure and level of testing best reflects successful infection control remains unresolved. Our aim was to compare the sensitivity of two testing metrics – population testing number and testing coverage – to population mortality outcomes and identify a benchmark for testing adequacy. We aggregated publicly available data through 12 April on testing and outcomes related to COVID-19 across 36 OECD (Organization for Economic Development) countries and Taiwan. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the aforementioned metrics and following outcome measures: deaths per 1 million people, case fatality rate and case proportion of critical illness. Fractional polynomials were used to generate scatter plots to model the relationship between the testing metrics and outcomes. We found that testing coverage, but not population testing number, was highly correlated with population mortality (rs = −0.79, P = 5.975 × 10−9vs. rs = −0.3, P = 0.05) and case fatality rate (rs = −0.67, P = 9.067 × 10−6vs. rs = −0.21, P = 0.20). A testing coverage threshold of 15–45 signified adequate testing: below 15, testing coverage was associated with exponentially increasing population mortality; above 45, increased testing did not yield significant incremental mortality benefit. Taken together, testing coverage was better than population testing number in explaining country performance and can serve as an early and sensitive indicator of testing adequacy and disease burden.
An acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak caused by a norovirus occurred at a hospital in Shanghai, China, was studied for molecular epidemiology, host susceptibility and serological roles. Rectal and environmental swabs, paired serum samples and saliva specimens were collected. Pathogens were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) phenotypes of saliva samples and their binding to norovirus protruding proteins were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The HBGA-binding interfaces and the surrounding region were analysed by the MegAlign program of DNAstar 7.1. Twenty-seven individuals in two care units were attacked with AGE at attack rates of 9.02 and 11.68%. Eighteen (78.2%) symptomatic and five (38.4%) asymptomatic individuals were GII.6/b norovirus positive. Saliva-based HBGA phenotyping showed that all symptomatic and asymptomatic cases belonged to A, B, AB or O secretors. Only four (16.7%) out of the 24 tested serum samples showed low blockade activity against HBGA-norovirus binding at the acute phase, whereas 11 (45.8%) samples at the convalescence stage showed seroconversion of such blockade. Specific blockade antibody in the population played an essential role in this norovirus epidemic. A wide HBGA-binding spectrum of GII.6 supports a need for continuous health attention and surveillance in different settings.
With today's rapidly increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for emerging applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and large-scale grid storage, it begs the question of how sustainable batteries really are. Proponents of increasing electrification of our modern society often tout the environmental benefits of using battery energy storage over traditional fossil fuels, citing direct reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, especially when paired with renewable energy generation. Unfortunately, these often leave out considerations for the “dark side” of LIBs that few manufacturers in the battery industry have addressed: how to deal with batteries at their end of life. As the world accelerates toward displacing conventional vehicles with EVs, methods of handling large volumes of spent LIBs when these devices reach their end of life have not been fully developed. This potentially results in the accumulation of battery waste that will ultimately undo the environmental benefits batteries originally sought to achieve.
We describe here efforts to create and study magnetized electron–positron pair plasmas, the existence of which in astrophysical environments is well-established. Laboratory incarnations of such systems are becoming ever more possible due to novel approaches and techniques in plasma, beam and laser physics. Traditional magnetized plasmas studied to date, both in nature and in the laboratory, exhibit a host of different wave types, many of which are generically unstable and evolve into turbulence or violent instabilities. This complexity and the instability of these waves stem to a large degree from the difference in mass between the positively and the negatively charged species: the ions and the electrons. The mass symmetry of pair plasmas, on the other hand, results in unique behaviour, a topic that has been intensively studied theoretically and numerically for decades, but experimental studies are still in the early stages of development. A levitated dipole device is now under construction to study magnetized low-energy, short-Debye-length electron–positron plasmas; this experiment, as well as a stellarator device that is in the planning stage, will be fuelled by a reactor-based positron source and make use of state-of-the-art positron cooling and storage techniques. Relativistic pair plasmas with very different parameters will be created using pair production resulting from intense laser–matter interactions and will be confined in a high-field mirror configuration. We highlight the differences between and similarities among these approaches, and discuss the unique physics insights that can be gained by these studies.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To evaluate the impacts of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and coated folic acid (CFA) on growth performance, nutrient digestion and hepatic gene expression, fifty-two Angus bulls were assigned to four groups in a 2 × 2 factor experimental design. The CFA of 0 or 6 mg/kg dietary DM folic acid was supplemented in diets with GAA of 0 (GAA−) or 0·6 g/kg DM (GAA+), respectively. Average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency and hepatic creatine concentration increased with GAA or CFA addition, and the increased magnitude of these parameters was greater for addition of CFA in GAA− diets than in GAA+ diets. Blood creatine concentration increased with GAA or CFA addition, and greater increase was observed when CFA was supplemented in GAA+ diets than in GAA− diets. DM intake was unchanged, but rumen total SCFA concentration and digestibilities of DM, crude protein, neutral-detergent fibre and acid-detergent fibre increased with the addition of GAA or CFA. Acetate:propionate ratio was unaffected by GAA, but increased for CFA addition. Increase in blood concentrations of albumin, total protein and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed for GAA or CFA addition. Blood folate concentration was decreased by GAA, but increased with CFA addition. Hepatic expressions of IGF-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase increased with GAA or CFA addition. Results indicated that the combined supplementation of GAA and CFA could not cause ADG increase more when compared with GAA or CFA addition alone.
Adipocytokines, which are secreted during fetal development by both mothers and fetuses, may influence fetal lung development, but little human data are available. We used data from the HOME Study to investigate the associations of cord blood adipocytokine concentrations with children’s lung forced expiratory volume (FEV1; N = 160) and their risk of wheeze (N = 281). We measured umbilical cord serum adipocytokine concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and FEV1 using a portable spirometer at ages 4 and 5 to calculate the percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1). Parents completed standardized questionnaires of their child’s wheeze symptoms every 6 months from birth to age 5, then again at ages 6 and 8. We used multivariable linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to estimate associations of adipocytokine concentrations (log2-transformed) with children’s %FEV1 and the risk of wheeze, respectively, adjusting for sociodemographic, perinatal, and child factors. Cord serum leptin was not associated with children’s %FEV1. Higher cord serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with higher %FEV1 in girls (β = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.6), but not in boys (β = −1.3, 95% CI: −5.9, 3.3) (sex × adiponectin p-value = 0.05). Higher leptin was associated with lower risk of wheeze in girls (RR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84), but not boys (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.11) (sex × leptin p-value = 0.01). In contrast, higher adiponectin concentrations were associated with lower risk of wheeze (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96) in both boys and girls. These data suggest that fetal adipocytokines may impact lung development and function in early childhood. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore the mechanisms underlying these associations.
To investigate whether an after-school nutrition education (ASNE) programme can improve the nutrition knowledge and healthy eating behaviour of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
One-group pretest and posttest design. Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake were collected using a questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were measured before and after the intervention. Nine components of healthy eating behaviour were assessed with reference to the Dietary Guideline of Taiwan. Pretest and posttest differences were analysed using generalised estimating equations.
Three after-school programmes in central and southern Taiwan. The ASNE programme comprised three monthly 1-h sessions (20–30-min lecture and 30–40-min interaction).
A total of 153 adolescents aged 10–15 years from economically disadvantaged families (seventy-eight elementary students and seventy-five junior high school students).
Elementary and junior high school students’ nutrition knowledge scores (range 0–6) increased by 0·28 (+ 5·7 %, P = 0·02) and 0·30 points (+ 6·18 %, P = 0·02), respectively, but their fruit intake decreased by 0·36 serving/d (–22·9 %, P = 0·02) and 0·29 serving/d (–18·9 %, P = 0·03), respectively. Junior high school students’ mean snacking frequency and fried food intake dropped to 0·75 d/week (–21·3 %, P = 0·008) and 0·10 serving/d (–28·8 %, P = 0·01), respectively.
Short-term ASNE programmes can increase nutrition knowledge and reduce snacking frequency and fried food intake despite a decrease in fruit intake among adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.