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Normative systems known as honor, face and dignity system may have evolved as cultural adaptations to the survival challenges posed by quite different ecologies. Theory that views culture as situated cognition (Oyserman, 2017) posits that regionally dominant systems provide environmental cues that preferentially elicit normative thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Systems of shared norms help people coordinate actions and manage conflicts within their group. In the United States, successive waves of European colonization established cultural legacies that survive as regional differences, currently reflected in crime statistics and behavioral research. This chapter examines potential mechanisms of high rates of vengeful aggression within honor systems. Individual influences may include emotion socialization, hostile attribution biases, beliefs that behavior is stable, criteria for self-worth, and masculine anxiety. Theory and research indicate that institutional failure to protect and provide justice to all group members creates conditions linked to the contemporary evolution of honor norms in social groups.
Internet currently has 513 million users worldwide and the young continue to be one of the largest groups of users. 23% use the Internet to look for information about depression or mental illness and about problems with drugs or alcohol (Rideout, 2001) but more than 20% of Internet help-seekers were dissatisfied with the help they received (Gould et al., 2002).
SUPREME (Suicide Prevention by Internet and Media Based Mental Health Promotion) is aimed to increasing the prevention of risk behaviours and mental health promotion through the use of mass media and Internet.
The main expected outcome of the project is to improve mental health among European adolescents and young adults.
A sample about 1800 students (average age of 15 years) is selected in six different European Countries. The prevention program consist in a highly interactive website that permit to inform the knowledge about suicide, stimulate young people to become active in promoting mental health and increase the probability to seek help. There are 3 intervention arms: Peer Ambassador, Professional Ambassador and a Control Group. A questionnaire was administered to the pupils for require the data on lifestyles, values and attitudes, psychological well-being, familiar relationship and friendship.
The transition between adolescence and adulthood is a fundamental period for ascertaining the current and future health of an individual. Through SUPREME project an high number of young are been achieved, providing them information about suicide prevention and mental health promotion
Section 4 of the FM14 focus on the outreach action and advocacy in the context of IAUs 2020-2030 Strategic Plan. This paper also contains supplementary materials that point to contributed talks and poster presentations that can be found online.
The reasons for the unprecedented mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic remain poorly understood. We examined morbidity records from three military cohorts from years prior to and during the 1918 pandemic period to assess the effects of previous respiratory illnesses on experiences during the pandemic. Clinical registers and morbidity lists were examined to identify all medical encounters for acute respiratory illnesses in students at two U.S. military officer training academies and Australian soldiers deployed in Europe. Influenza-like illness prior to the major pandemic wave of 1918 predisposed Australian soldiers [relative risk (RR) 1·37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·18–1·60, P < 0·0001] and US officer trainees at West Point (RR 3·10, 95% CI 2·13–4·52, P < 0·0001) and Annapolis (RR 2·03, 95% CI 1·65–2·50, P < 0·0001) to increased risks of medically treated illnesses in late 1918. The findings suggest that susceptibility to and/or clinical expressions of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus depended on previous experiences with respiratory infectious agents. The findings are consistent with observations during the 2009 pandemic in Canada and may reflect antibody-dependent enhancement of influenza infection.
Most tall fescue in the United States is infected with a fungal endophyte which imparts certain advantages to the plant, such as drought tolerance, insect feeding deterrence, and enhanced mineral uptake. However, the endophyte also produces ergot alkaloids that are harmful to livestock and contribute to fescue toxicosis. Because the alkaloids are concentrated in seed and stems, a potential way to reduce the likelihood of fescue toxicosis is by suppressing seedhead formation with herbicides. Research was conducted from 2012 to 2014 using metsulfuron applied alone and in combination with other herbicides in spring to determine the growth response of tall fescue, effects on forage quality, and ergot alkaloid concentration. Clipping or metsulfuron applied alone or in combination with aminocyclopyrachlor or aminopyralid reduced seedhead density by 36 to 55% compared to the nontreated control. Treatments containing metsulfuron reduced spring harvest yield 35 to 61%, but no differences were observed in the summer or year-after harvests. The same treatments increased crude protein levels by 1.03 to 2.14% and reduced acid detergent fiber levels by 1.60 to 2.76% compared to the nontreated control at spring harvest. Treatments containing metsulfuron reduced ergot alkaloid concentration 26 to 34% at the spring harvest, but no differences were observed in summer-harvested forage. Results from this study indicate metsulfuron applied alone or in combination with aminocyclopyrachlor or aminopyralid can potentially reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis and improve forage quality.
There were multiple waves of influenza-like illness in 1918, the last of which resulted in a highly lethal pandemic killing 50 million people. It is difficult to study the initial waves of influenza-like illness in early 1918 because few deaths resulted and few morbidity records exist. Using extant military mortality records, we constructed mortality maps based on location of burial in France and Belgium in the British Army, and on home town in Vermont and New York in the USA Army. Differences between early and more lethal later waves in late 1918 were consistent with historical descriptions in France. The maps of Vermont and New York support the hypothesis that previous exposure may have conferred a degree of protection against subsequent infections; soldiers from rural areas, which were likely to have experienced less mixing than soldiers from urban areas, were at higher risk of mortality. Differences between combat and disease mortality in 1918 were consistent with limited influenza virus circulation during the early 1918 wave. We suggest that it is likely that more than one influenza virus was circulating in 1918, which might help explain the higher mortality rates in those unlikely to have been infected in early 1918.
In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.
Background: The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. Aims: This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Method: Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. Results: CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. Conclusions: CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.
CRESST II is an experiment for direct WIMP search, using cryogenic detectors. the ratio of the two signals (temperature rise and scintillation light) measured for each interaction is an excellent parameter for discrimination of the radioactive background. the main remaining background is the neutron flux present at the experimental site, since neutrons produce the same signals as WIMPs do. Based on Monte Carlo simulations the present work shows how neutrons from different origins affect CRESST and which measures have to be taken into account to reach the sensitivity goal.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning has recently been introduced into clinical practice but its usefulness in the management of head and neck cancer is not well defined. The aim of this prospective preliminary study was to examine the clinical value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) – PET in patients with head and neck cancer treated by radiotherapy with surgery in reserve by (i) relating quantitative uptake of isotope to tumour type and histological grade and (ii) comparing the imaging findings of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in post-radiotherapy assessment of tumour response. Twenty-one patients had pre-treatment PET and MRI scans and these were repeated four and eight months after treatment if there was no clinical relapse. Pre-treatment uptake of FDG using tumour to cerebellar ratio parameters was significantly related to the histological grade of squamous cancer (p = 0.04) but not to tumour type. Discordance of post-treatment PET/MRI findings in one case indicates a possible role for PET in the early detection of tumour recurrence. Other potential uses of PET scanning in the management of head and neck cancer are discussed.
Patients expected to need at least three units of blood for their elective cardiovascular or orthopaedic surgery, were allocated randomly to receive intravenous (i.v.) Epoetin alfa 600 IU kg−1 (n = 27), 300 IU kg−1 (n = 30) or placebo (n = 23), on days 1, 4 and 7. Provided haemoglobin ≥ 11 g dL−1, one unit of blood was collected on days 1, 4, 7, 11 and 14. Iron supplementation was given throughout the study. Surgery was scheduled between days 18 and 21. Significantly more patients treated with Epoetin alfa (100% for 600 IU kg −1 ; 97% for 300 IU kg−1) were able to donate ≥ 4 units of blood compared with placebo (78%) (P = 0.011 and P = 0.032). No significant differences were seen in total patient exposure to homologous blood (7.4%, 3.3% and 17.4%, respectively). Mean red cell volume donated (P = 0.005 for 600 IU kg−1 ; P = 0.158 for 300 IU kg−1 both vs. placebo) and production (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively) were dose related. Twenty-four patients became iron deficient. No differences in the incidence of adverse events were seen between the groups.
The aim was to investigate the effect of tiapride (100 mg three times a day for at least one month) on outcome following detoxification.
The setting was a tertiary referral centre. The study design was randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled. One hundred routinely admitted alcohol-dependent patients were entered, and 54 completed the trial. Outcome was assessed by considering drinking status at three months and six months follow-up, and by comparing psychological status at intake and follow-up using the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index, the Litman Self-esteem scale and a Satisfaction with Life Situations scale. We also compared performance over the six months before admission with the three and six months of follow-up on measures of health, social and drinking variables.
Tiapride proved better (usually at statistically highly significant levels) than placebo at promoting: abstinence, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life situations; and at reducing: alcohol consumption, use of health service resources, and levels of neuroticism.
Tiapride merits serious consideration in the longer-term treatment of alcoholic patients.
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