To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A variety of paediatric tracheostomy tubes are available. This article reviews the tubes in current use at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and Evelina London Children's Hospital.
This paper outlines our current preferences, and the particular indications for different tracheostomy tubes, speaking valves and other attachments.
Our preferred types of tubes have undergone significant design changes. This paper also reports further experience with certain tubes that may be useful in particular circumstances. An updated sizing chart is included for reference purposes.
The choice of a paediatric tracheostomy tube remains largely determined by individual clinical requirements. Although we still favour a small range of tubes for use in the majority of our patients, there are circumstances in which other varieties are indicated.
Diet is well known to have beneficial health properties that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The approach involved in elucidating these beneficial physiological effects is becoming more important, as reflected by increasing research being undertaken. With growing consumer awareness of foods and food constituents and their relationship to health, the key questions for regulators, scientists and the food industry continue to relate to: (1) how consumers could be protected and have confidence that the health claims on foods are well supported by the evidence; (2) how research on physiological effects of food (constituents) and their health benefits could be stimulated and supported; (3) how research findings could be used in the development of innovative new food products. The objectives of this paper are to provide a set of recommendations on the substantiation of health claims for foods, to develop further guidance on the choice of validated markers (or marker patterns) and what effects are considered to be beneficial to the health of the general public (or specific target groups). Finally, the case for developing a standardised approach for assessing the totality of the available scientific data and weighing the evidence is proposed.
A variety of paediatric tracheostomy tubes are available. This article reviews those in current use at Great Ormond Street Hospital.
We outline our preferences and the particular indications for the different tubes, speaking valves and other attachments.
Practice has changed significantly in recent years. One product has been re-sized by its manufacturer; others are no longer commonly used. An updated sizing chart is included for reference purposes, together with manufacturers' contact details.
The choice of paediatric tracheostomy tube is driven by clinical requirements. A small range of tubes are suitable for the majority of children, but some will require other varieties in specific circumstances.
The effect of a single pre-operative oral dose of controlled release diclofenac sodium on post-operative pain after minor gynaecological surgery was investigated. Fifty-two women took part in a double-blind controlled study. Pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), a four-point verbal rating score, and the requirement for post-operative analgesia. Those patients who received diclofenac had significantly less post-operative pain than the placebo group up to 2 h after surgery.
An extension of Bellman's analogue of Wald's identity is proved for Markov processes with a finite number of states, in which (a) the diagonal matrices of the state functions and the transition matrices may be heterogeneous but are so related that the product of the two matrices which apply at any stage has at least one modal vector in common with all of the corresponding products which apply at other stages, and (b) the probability distribution of the duration of any one realization of the process satisfies certain conditions. The condition (a) is called equimodality. The conditions for (b) are satisfied when there is asymptotically a sufficiently abrupt exponential upper bound to the probability distribution of the duration, and extends simply to validate analogues involving latent roots other than the one which appears in Bellman's formula. A certain generalization of Wald's stopping rule produces a bound of this kind.
A method is described in general terms for finding the function of a variate of which the mean is a given function of a parameter of the population. This can sometimes be used for finding unbiased estimates and for finding the moments and moment-generating functions of a statistic when another statistic based on the same observations has a constant value. It is always available when the latter statistic is a ‘sufficient statistic’ for estimating the parameter, which requires the frequency function to be of a certain form. A number of examples are given.
A man has three vessels, whose capacities are 3, 5 and 8 pints respectively. The largest is full of water. He desires to divide this water into two equal parts by using these vessels only What are the simplest ways of doing this?
Call the vessels X, Y and Z respectively, and the amounts of water they contain x, y and z respectively.
The following lesson in Theoretical Arithmetic was originally intended as an Appendix to a Higher Arithmetic, and is now published in the hope that it may be of interest to the more select band of young scholars who may wish to know more of the subject than its application to the calculations of Stocks and Shares, et hoc omne genus.
The algebraic methods employed are usually defective in explaining the sign to be attached to an area; while the trigonometrical method with the transformation of a trigonometrical formula has always seemed a little far fetched so early in analytical geometry.
(xm - 1)/ m >(xn - 1)/n, m > n.— I have sometimes found the following geometrical method of attack useful in explaining this theorem to students of only average ability. The Lemmas introduced are almost self-evident, and admit of simple analytical demonstration.
§ 1. In the Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll occurs the following extract from his Diary:—
“Dec. 19 (Sun).—Sat up last night till 4 a.m., over a tempting problem, sent me from New York, ‘to find 3 equal rational-sided rt.-angled ∆&s.’ I found two, whose sides are 20, 21, 29; 12, 35, 37; but could not find three.' (v. page 343.)