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Designating protected areas remains a core strategy in biodiversity conservation. Despite high endemism, montane forests across the island of Java are under-represented in Indonesia's protected area network. Here, we document the montane biodiversity of Gunung Slamet, an isolated volcano in Central Java, and provide evidence to support its increased protection. During September–December 2018, we surveyed multiple sites for birds, primates, terrestrial mammals, reptiles, amphibians and vegetation. Survey methods included transects, camera traps and targeted searches at six sites, at altitudes of 970–2,512 m. We used species distribution models for birds and mammals of conservation concern to identify priority areas for protection. We recorded 99 bird species (13 globally threatened), 15 mammals (five globally threatened) and 17 reptiles and amphibians (two endemic). Our species distribution models showed considerable cross-taxon congruence between important areas on Slamet's upper slopes, generally above 1,800 m. Particularly important were records of the endemic subspecies of the Endangered Javan laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons slamatensis, not recorded in the wild since 1925, the Endangered Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch and Javan surili Presbytis comata, and the Vulnerable Javan lutung Trachypithecus auratus and Javan leopard Panthera pardus melas. Recent forest loss has been modest, at least 280 km2 of continuous forest remain above 800 m, and our surveys show that forest habitats are in good condition. However, the mountain is widely used by trappers and hunters. Given its importance for biodiversity conservation, we discuss different options for improving the protection status of Gunung Slamet, including designation as a National Park or Essential Ecosystem.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
Ontology deals with questions concerning what things exist, and how such things may be associated according to similarities and differences and related within a hierarchy. Ontology provides a rigorous way to develop a general definition of a mineral species. Properties may be divided into two principal groups: an intrinsic property is characteristic of the object and is independent of anything else; an extrinsic property depends on the relation between the object and other things. A universal is an entity that is common to all objects in a set. Here the objects are mineral samples, each entity is a specific property of these minerals, and the set of objects is all mineral samples of that mineral species. The key intrinsic properties of a mineral species are its name, its end-member formula and Z (the number of formula units in the unit cell), its space group and the bond topology of the end-member structure. These are also universals as they are common to all mineral samples belonging to that mineral species. An archetype is a pure form which embodies the fundamental characteristics of an object. Thus the archetype of a mineral species embodies the above set of universals. Real mineral samples of this mineral species are imperfect copies of that archetype, with a range of chemical composition defined by the boundaries between end-member formulae of this and other end members of the same bond topology. The result is a formal definition of a mineral species: A specific mineral species is the set of imperfect copies of the corresponding archetype and is defined by the following set of universals: name, end-member formula and Z, space group, and bond topology of the end-member structure, with the range of chemical composition limited by the compositional boundaries between end members with the same bond topology.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Characterizing the cellular composition of human adipose tissue may contribute to the prevention and/or treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our aims in this study were to use single-cell techniques 1. to characterize cell types within the stromavascular fraction of human adipose tissue, 2. to identify subsets of cells within each type (sub-clustering), 3. to identify gene sets and pathways that may provide information on the function and significance of each cell cluster. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from n=6 healthy volunteers (1M, 5F, age 28-38 y, BMI 24.5-63.0 kg/m2) were collected by aspiration or during surgery. In 3 subjects, all females, paired femoral samples were also collected. After collagenase digestion approximately n=10,000 cells/sample were used for single-cell RNA sequencing using the 10X Genomics platform. After QC and downstream analysis, data were analyzed in Seurat v.3.1.5. We identified first different cell types and then subclusters in an unbiased fashion. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Progenitor markers are related to extracellular matrix, eg DCN (logFC progenitors vs other cells types=3.17, expressed in 99.7% (pct.1) of progenitors, 26.1% (pct.2) of others). Endothelial and pericytes shared markers like RBP7 (logFC=1.67, pct.1 0.88, pct.2 0.39); pericytes also showed unique markers, eg RGS5 (logFC=2.29, pct.1 0.89, pct.2 0.17). Progenitors are further divided into 11 sub-clusters, one of which showed enrichment of CD36 (high proliferation potential), FABP4 (differentiation), and of the novel marker PALMD (logFC=7.13, pct.1 0.94, pct.2 0.48). All p<10E-5. GSEA analysis suggests that inflammatory pathways are downregulated in both adipose progenitors and endothelial/pericyte cells in the femoral compared to the abdominal depot. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Single cell RNA sequencing provides unique insights into the molecular profile of cell types and the identification of novel subsets of cells within the human adipose tissue. Such cellular heterogeneity may explain differences in adipose function between individuals and eventually in the risk of obesity-associated metabolic diseases.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
To conduct a pilot study implementing combined genomic and epidemiologic surveillance for hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) to predict transmission between patients and to estimate the local burden of MDRO transmission.
Pilot prospective multicenter surveillance study.
The study was conducted in 8 university hospitals (2,800 beds total) in Melbourne, Australia (population 4.8 million), including 4 acute-care, 1 specialist cancer care, and 3 subacute-care hospitals.
All clinical and screening isolates from hospital inpatients (April 24 to June 18, 2017) were collected for 6 MDROs: vanA VRE, MRSA, ESBL Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb). Isolates were analyzed and reported as routine by hospital laboratories, underwent whole-genome sequencing at the central laboratory, and were analyzed using open-source bioinformatic tools. MDRO burden and transmission were assessed using combined genomic and epidemiologic data.
In total, 408 isolates were collected from 358 patients; 47.5% were screening isolates. ESBL-Ec was most common (52.5%), then MRSA (21.6%), vanA VRE (15.7%), and ESBL-Kp (7.6%). Most MDROs (88.3%) were isolated from patients with recent healthcare exposure.
Combining genomics and epidemiology identified that at least 27.1% of MDROs were likely acquired in a hospital; most of these transmission events would not have been detected without genomics. The highest proportion of transmission occurred with vanA VRE (88.4% of patients).
Genomic and epidemiologic data from multiple institutions can feasibly be combined prospectively, providing substantial insights into the burden and distribution of MDROs, including in-hospital transmission. This analysis enables infection control teams to target interventions more effectively.
Despite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a majority of the world’s working population does not enjoy access to decent work and a sustainable livelihood. Humanitarian work psychology focuses on this issue, which resonates with the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of decent work and shared prosperity for all. The chapter outlines a series of human rights structures that should, as a matter of course, be incorporated into work psychology teaching, research, and service – including workplace consultancy. Their incorporation contributes to the International Labour Organization’s Decent Work Agenda under SDG8, as well as to the remaining sixteen SDGs, including SDG17, Partnership. We outline the nature and ethos of key human rights structures at work. These include UN charters such as the UN Development Programme and the Global Compact; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for MNEs [multinational enterprises] and the Living Wage; and finally, a series of New Diplomacies (CSEND, 2012) for utilizing these structures to help bring workplace policies into line with the SDGs in general and SDG8 in particular. In so doing, we show that human rights are not at the periphery of good business and decent sustainable organizations; rather, they are their heart. Human rights are a nucleus for making work more humanitarian and livelihoods more sustainable.
There has been little research investigating how mode of input affects incidental vocabulary learning, and no study examining how it affects the learning of multiword items. The aim of this study was to investigate incidental learning of L2 collocations in three different modes: reading, listening, and reading while listening. One hundred thirty-eight second-year college students learning EFL in Taiwan were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (reading, listening, reading while listening) and a no treatment control group. The experimental groups encountered 17 target collocations in the same graded reader. Learning was measured using two tests that involved matching the component words and recalling their meanings. The results indicated that the reading while listening condition was most effective while the reading and listening conditions contributed to similarly sized gains. The findings suggest that listening may play a more important role in learning collocations than single-word items.
The development of childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) is likely to depend on pathways that can be programmed by early-life risk factors. We test the hypothesis that early-life maternal factors can predict this programming effect on CAD.
Data were obtained from 198 women and children from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study (MPEWS), a cohort study with data collected across pregnancy, postpartum and until 4 years of age. Maternal antenatal depression was measured using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV), together with antenatal hair cortisol concentrations, maternal childhood trauma and parenting stress at 6 months postpartum. CAD was assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and the Child Behaviour Checklist.
Antenatal depression, a history of maternal childhood trauma and lower gestational age at birth were each associated with anxiety disorders at 4 years of age in their children. A multivariate binary logistic model with these early predictors explained approximately 9% of variance in CAD outcome at 4 years of age; however, only maternal trauma and gestational age were significant predictors in the model. The effect of early parenting stress on CAD was found to vary by the concentration of maternal antenatal hair cortisol, whereby postpartum parenting stress was associated with CAD only when there were higher maternal antenatal cortisol levels.
This study suggests the importance of maternal factors pre-conception, pregnancy and in the postnatal period, which predict CADs and this is consistent with a developmental programming hypothesis for CAD.
This paper considers how what has been learned about hoarding difficulties in adults can be applied to working with children and adolescents and how our knowledge of child development can improve how we help the younger person with this problem. In particular, attachment relationships to objects and organisational difficulties will be focused upon. The importance of earlier interventions, earlier in life, to prevent problems in the future is stressed. Future directions including a research agenda are put forward.
Mood disorders are very common and associated with significant disability. Stigma because of mental illness is also ubiquitous in the society.
We have created a new course for people with mood disorders to help them learn more and be able to practice ways to overcome stigma in their lives and themselves. The course is a closed group with five to eight participants, co-led by a mental health professional and a person with lived experience. The course consists of 7 two hour sessions and focus on the following topics: Introduction and orientation; Depression, Anxiety and Recovery; Self-Stigma; Social Stigma – Family, Friends and Medical settings; Stigma in Education, Housing and the Workplace; Disclosure; and Conclusion. There is a homework assigned between sessions
A pilot running of the course has been completed. It was used for a fine-tuning of the course and finalizing the course content. Feedback was encouraged and was used for these purposes
The course: ‘Overcoming Stigma in Mood and Anxiety Disorders’ may have a significant role in helping people with those disorders to achieve recovery
To evaluate the National Health Safety Network (NHSN) hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) standardized infection ratio (SIR) risk adjustment for general acute-care hospitals with large numbers of intensive care unit (ICU), oncology unit, and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Eight tertiary-care referral general hospitals in California.
We used FY 2016 data and the published 2015 rebaseline NHSN HO-CDI SIR. We compared facility-wide inpatient HO-CDI events and SIRs, with and without ICU data, oncology and/or HCT unit data, and ICU bed adjustment.
For these hospitals, the median unmodified HO-CDI SIR was 1.24 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.15–1.34); 7 hospitals qualified for the highest ICU bed adjustment; 1 hospital received the second highest ICU bed adjustment; and all had oncology-HCT units with no additional adjustment per the NHSN. Removal of ICU data and the ICU bed adjustment decreased HO-CDI events (median, −25%; IQR, −20% to −29%) but increased the SIR at all hospitals (median, 104%; IQR, 90%–105%). Removal of oncology-HCT unit data decreased HO-CDI events (median, −15%; IQR, −14% to −21%) and decreased the SIR at all hospitals (median, −8%; IQR, −4% to −11%).
For tertiary-care referral hospitals with specialized ICUs and a large number of ICU beds, the ICU bed adjustor functions as a global adjustment in the SIR calculation, accounting for the increased complexity of patients in ICUs and non-ICUs at these facilities. However, the SIR decrease with removal of oncology and HCT unit data, even with the ICU bed adjustment, suggests that an additional adjustment should be considered for oncology and HCT units within general hospitals, perhaps similar to what is done for ICU beds in the current SIR.
‘Discourses of climate delay’ pervade current debates on climate action. These discourses accept the existence of climate change, but justify inaction or inadequate efforts. In contemporary discussions on what actions should be taken, by whom and how fast, proponents of climate delay would argue for minimal action or action taken by others. They focus attention on the negative social effects of climate policies and raise doubt that mitigation is possible. Here, we outline the common features of climate delay discourses and provide a guide to identifying them.
Theoretically, a living wage is a threshold that, once crossed, may transform qualities of work life, including from wage injustice to justice, organizational disengagement to commitment, and life dissatisfaction to satisfaction. Initial studies from New Zealand, South Africa and Thailand have found a threshold-like cusp in the relationship between wages and quality-of-work-life. Our aim in this study was to explore whether we would replicate a cusp in a localized study within China, among 135 employees in Shandong Province, Northern China. Survey data used minimal assumption and exploratory techniques to probe links between levels of employees’ (1) take-home wage and (2) net household income; and (3) perceived wage justice, (4) commitment to employing organization, and (5) life satisfaction. Measures were locally aligned and statistically reliable. Consistent with living wage theory, as a participant’s wage tended to cross a pay threshold of (1) RMB 4–5000 personally per month and (2) RMB 7–8000 household monthly, workers tended to report (3) wage justice (in place of injustice), (4) presence (replacing absence) of organizational commitment, and (5) satisfaction with life (replacing dissatisfaction). Our replication aim was met, but generalizing to any kind of national living wage across China would require a larger and more representative study and sample.
Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
To describe an outbreak of bacteremia caused by vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecalis (VSEfe).
An investigation by retrospective case control and molecular typing by whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
A tertiary-care neonatal unit in Melbourne, Australia.
Risk factors for 30 consecutive neonates with VSEfe bacteremia from June 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed using a case control study. Controls were neonates matched for gestational age, birth weight, and year of birth. Isolates were typed using WGS, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was determined.
Bacteremia for case patients occurred at a median time after delivery of 23.5 days (interquartile range, 14.9–35.8). Previous described risk factors for nosocomial bacteremia did not contribute to excess risk for VSEfe. WGS typing results designated 43% ST179 as well as 14 other sequence types, indicating a polyclonal outbreak. A multimodal intervention that included education, insertion checklists, guidelines on maintenance and access of central lines, adjustments to the late onset sepsis antibiotic treatment, and the introduction of diaper bags for disposal of soiled diapers after being handled inside the bed, led to termination of the outbreak.
Typing using WGS identified this outbreak as predominately nonclonal and therefore not due to cross transmission. A multimodal approach was then sought to reduce the incidence of VSEfe bacteremia.