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In this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical-axis wind turbine blade coupled with a high-lift device, such as the Gurney flap at the trailing edge, are investigated. For numerical analysis, the force element theory is used to understand how the Gurney flap influences the force evolution of the lift-type vertical-axis wind turbine. This study shows that the lift and drag can be respectively approximated into four elements, which are induced by volume vorticity, rotational velocity, angular acceleration and surface friction of the flow around the blades. Based on the perspective of the force element theory, the present simulation provides a clear picture of how the Gurney flap influences the formation of the aerodynamic force elements during a rotational cycle for a vertical-axis wind turbine. Simulation results show that the contributions mainly result from the surface vorticities, the rotational acceleration of the airfoil, and the acceleration of the surface.
Types of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) can differ greatly between countries, with greater consumption of sweetened tea in Asia. This study aimed to understand changes in SSB consumption by adolescents in Taiwan over 18 years and their association with demographic characteristics and clinical outcome. This study used survey data from the 1993–1996 and 2010–2011 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan. Participants were high school students aged 13 to 18 years. Data were weighted and analysed using SUDAAN 11.0 and SAS 9.4. Participants were asked about intake frequencies of SSB and were grouped into four different SSB intake groups based on the combination of high or low frequency (including moderate frequency) of intake of sweetened tea and soda/sports/energy drinks. Results indicated over 99 % of teens reported having at least one SSB in the past week. Smoking status was significantly associated with SSB intake types with high tea intake (high tea and low soda (HL) group, OR 7·56, P < 0·001; high tea and high soda (HH) group, OR 9·96, P < 0·001). After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the low tea and high soda (LH) group (β = 0·05, P = 0·034) had significantly higher mean serum uric acid values. In conclusion, sugary tea remains the SSB of choice for Taiwanese adolescents. Those with a frequent intake of soda/sports/energy drinks had a higher chance of being hyperuricaemic.
Two solid state anaerobic digesters (SSADs), 15 L each, were set up for co-digestion of switchgrass with primary digestate of a liquid anaerobic digester (LAD) and the recirculating leachate. Both the LAD and two SSADs were operated at 50°C. The results showed that the bioreactors were not started up stably until day 16 and day 47 for reactors A and B, respectively. The supplement of LAD digestate or injection of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) into the recirculating leachate readily reinitiated the biogas production to normal daily high rates of the two individual SSADs, one on day 16 and the other on day 47. In contrast to reactor A, there was a longer lag phase for bioreactor B, however, it showed 46.2% [77.9 vs 53.3 L kg−1 volatile solid (VS)] more cumulative biogas yields, and higher reduction rate of total solid, VS, cellulose and hemicellulose of 29.5, 31, 40.6 and 15%, respectively, which was likely due to optimized pH and NaOH pretreated switchgrass during start-up period. Methane contents of biogas increased gradually and stabilized at 50% for both reactors, indicating a normal operation of anaerobic digestion lasted for at least 100 days. The determined parameters of digested residues met China organic fertilizer standard (NY 525-2012) except for high moisture and low total nutrient contents. Therefore, the product of SSAD has the potential value of organic fertilizer. It is concluded that the LAD digestate can be reused as inoculums by co-digestion with agricultural residues for biogas and organic fertilizer production in SSAD.
Research suggests an association between metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and schizophrenia. However, the risk of metabolic disorders in the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia remains unclear.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 3135 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands and 12,540 age-/sex-matched control subjects were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Individuals who developed metabolic disorders during the follow-up period were identified.
The unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM (3.4% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.010) than the controls. Logistic regression analyses with the adjustment of demographic data revealed that the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia were more likely to develop T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.75) later in life compared with the control group. Moreover, only female siblings of schizophrenia probands had an increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07–2.01) during the follow-up compared with the controls.
The unaffected siblings, especially sisters, of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM and hypertension compared with the controls. Our study revealed a familial link between schizophrenia and T2DM in a large sample. Additional studies are required to investigate the shared pathophysiology of schizophrenia and T2DM.
Introduction: Developing structured online educational curricula that meet learner needs is challenging. Thrombosis and bleeding are areas of innovation and change in emergency medicine. We aimed to determine the learning needs of the Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) community with the subsequent goal of developing structured curricula to meet them. Methods: A Massive Online Needs Assessment (MONA) was conducted to determine the perceived and unperceived educational needs in thrombosis and bleeding. The survey was designed by a multidisciplinary team of experts and was open from September 20 to December 10, 2016. The survey requested limited demographic information and contained questions to identify topics of interest. Respondents’ baseline knowledge and unperceived needs were assessed using 5 case scenarios containing 3 questions each. Knowledge gaps were defined a priori as topics where <50% of participants answered correctly. Results: We received 198 complete responses by staff physicians (n=109), residents (n=46), medical students (n=29) and allied health professionals (n=14) from 20 countries. 116/198 responses were from people working in emergency medicine. Topics of interest to participants included choice of anticoagulants, interruption of anticoagulation, management of bleeding and monitoring anticoagulation. Knowledge gaps were identified in 4 main areas including interruption of anticoagulation, management of bleeding (including reversal of anticoagulation and massive transfusion), inherited thrombophilia, and screening for malignancy in acute thrombosis. Conclusion: We have identified six priority topics to cover in our future online Thrombosis and Bleeding curriculum by surveying the online medical community. Although perceived and unperceived needs showed high congruence, two priority topics were only identified by assessing unperceived needs.
We study pseudo-arclength continuation methods for both Rydberg-dressed Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), and binary Rydberg-dressed BEC which are governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs). A divide-and-conquer technique is proposed for rescaling the range/ranges of nonlocal nonlinear term/terms, which gives enough information for choosing a proper stepsize. This guarantees that the solution curve we wish to trace can be precisely approximated. In addition, the ground state solution would successfully evolve from one peak to vortices when the affect of the rotating term is imposed. Moreover, parameter variables with different number of components are exploited in curve-tracing. The proposed methods have the advantage of tracing the ground state solution curve once to compute the contours for various values of the coefficients of the nonlocal nonlinear term/terms. Our numerical results are consistent with those published in the literatures.
The literature on faction suggests that patrons in the party may recruit faction members on the basis of a broad range of shared traits and experience. Some scholars argue reasonably that with increasing specialization of officials, factions are increasingly dominated by those with shared work experience in a set of bureaucracies. Although this trend may be true in general, senior leaders may still recruit those with whom they share birth place and school ties into their factions. To investigate this, we first derive four reasonable ways of measuring factional ties as suggested by the literature. We then explore the factional recruitment strategy pursued by each reform-era (1978–present) party secretary generals of the CCP by evaluating the measures of factional ties which predicted their clients’ promotions to full Central Committee membership. Our results show that Hu Yaobang, Jiang Zemin, and Xi Jinping pursued broadly based factional recruitment strategies, while Hu Jintao recruited faction members mainly from work colleagues. We further uncover signs that the party institutions may allow deposed secretary generals some measure of influence over promotions even after their political demise. At the same time, strict retirement rules on lower level officials gave rise to a cohort effect that gave the general secretary greater influence over the promotion of alternate Central Committee members to the full Central Committee during their first term than in subsequent terms.
The history of leadership change in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) exemplifies Pareto's notion of circulation of the elite. To analyze it we have compiled a partially ranked dataset of members and alternates of the Politburo Standing Committee, Politburo, and Central Committee for the 1st through 18th National Party Congresses. Quantitative studies of leadership change in the CCP have typically focused on the fraction of new members in each political body from one Party Congress to the next, but the existence of partially ranked data calls for a more subtle quantification of leadership change. Thus, we define a new family of metrics which consider change within each political body, the magnitude of such change, and the importance of each change to CCP structure and policy. We use two of these metrics to compute the distances between each pair of successive, partially-ranked leadership lists in our dataset. Our results capture important political developments from the irregular leadership change of the early years to the subsequent transformation of the CCP into a more institutionalized polity. This metric-based analysis also supplements our understanding of anomalous leadership transitions, intra-Party dynamics, and systemic change in the CCP.
Term limits that effectively govern leadership transition play an important role in authoritarian power sharing. A fixed term and a pre-appointed successor – two crucial components of term limits – credibly commit the incumbent ruler to share power with other elites, and also allow the elites to monitor and coordinate against the ruler's transgression of the power-sharing agreement. While the successful adoption of term limits often requires an even balance of power among the ruling elites in the first place, once adopted it initiates an evolving bargain over allocation of political power among multiple generations of leaders that further keeps any one faction from dominating the others. I corroborate this argument using a biographical dataset of elite members of the Chinese Communist Party from 1982 to 2012. The findings suggest that the Party's incumbent leaders and their rivals (i.e., predecessor and heir-apparent) shared equal chances in promoting their associates—which proxy their political influence—and this pattern has become more salient since the 16th party congress, when the term limits that currently govern China's leadership transition became fully fledged. This result also sheds light on the role of informal, patronage-based promotion in the institutionalization of authoritarian politics.
During recent party congresses in China and Vietnam, two highly anticipated candidates for promotion were sidelined. In China, Bo Xilai was arrested for corruption and stripped of his party membership. In Vietnam, Nguyen Ba Thanh remained a provincial leader with little opportunity for promotion to the Politburo. Existing arguments about promotions under authoritarian rule are unable to explain these outcomes. In particular, both candidates were competent and well connected. This cuts contrary to the expectations of both performance-based promotion and factional promotion theories. We argue that these candidates were sidelined due to a previously under-theorized factor in promotion contests—their ability to mobilize personal followings. Amidst a literature that has focused almost exclusively on intra-elite conflict, we argue that elite–mass linkages are critical. In particular, the public profile of top leaders is important for regime legitimacy and mobilization. However, when individuals become exceptionally well known they become threats to the single-party system. We test this argument on promotions in China's 18th Party Congress in 2012 and Vietnam's 11th Party Congress in 2011, using original data on Internet search queries and media coverage among contenders for promotion. Our approach offers new insights into the strategies authoritarian politicians use to stay afloat as well as the mistakes that sink them when competing for power under one-party rule.
Informal connections play an important role in regimes all across the world, but among China's political elite, it is particularly factional affiliation that is said to structure contention over who will rule and who will fall victim to a purge. This article identifies two approaches to measuring factional ties in the literature: the exploratory approach traces alliance ties through qualitative assessment of insider sources, while the structured approach uses publicly available data to infer factions from shared characteristics. The article combines the two by arguing that informal politics is better conceptualized as a process of alliance formation shaped by an underlying social (network) structure. Among the structured approaches, coworker networks best capture the latter, but this can be further refined by noting the number of instances of working together, or by taking into account promotions that have occurred while the two individuals were coworkers.
The purges of former Politburo Standing Committee member Zhou Yongkang, former Central Military Commission Vice Chairman Xu Caihou, and the former head of the Central Committee Office Ling Jihua in 2014 re-excited a long-standing debate in the field of elite Chinese politics: how contentious is politics at the elite level? On the face of it, these purges, as well as the arrests of ninety nine senior officials associated with these three individuals and with other cases, seem to prove that elite politics remains highly contentious at the top (People's Daily 2015). This outcome was surprising considering that decades of institution building had taken place after the Cultural Revolution. However, proponents of institutionalized politics in the CCP argue that the leadership had a genuine desire to clean house, and that these arrests, even if politically motivated, instilled a renewed discipline in the party. Once the “bad apples” were eliminated, the leadership under Xi Jinping would have continued on the road of institutionalization (Li 2014). Cadre promotion institutions, regular meetings of the Politburo and its standing committee, party congresses, and retirement rules remain largely unaffected by the purges and will continue to ensure relatively harmonious decision making and predictable successions in the foreseeable future.
We focus on the elite decision-making process in China, analyzing the formation of coalitions around particular policy options. We apply a framework that simulates collective decision-making processes (CDMP): the KAPSARC Toolkit for Behavioral Analysis (KTAB). KTAB facilitates the application of a Spatial Model of Politics, an open source model similar to Bueno de Mesquita's (1997) Expected Utility Model and the Senturion model (Abdollahian, et al 2006). KTAB provides a framework to understand logical consequences of subjective data inputs, enabling contrasting scenarios to be analyzed. We examine the interactions of actors' interests that drive China to reform its energy sector policies, in particular the structure of the Chinese National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC). In the case of private companies' entry into energy markets in China, we find that little reform is likely. The inertia of key actors holds back the potential for a significant opening of the energy sector. Despite the erosion of CNPC's political clout, there is little consensus for major reform to China's market position.
In order to analyze the boiling and capillary limitations of two-phase heat transport devices, the existing models developed by Chi and Peterson and the existing experimental data carried out with various micro channel wick structures from literature were collected for benchmark. It was found that the dominant parameters for boiling and capillary limitations were the nucleation sites and structure geometries of the micro channels, and important parameters were considered to modify the models empirically. It was also found that for micro channel structures the inclined angle is sensitive to the capillary limitations and not to boiling limitations. By properly estimating the nucleation sites and empirical coefficients for micro channels needed by the newly modified models, the boiling and capillary limitations can be accurately predicted, and hence the applicability of the modified models is confirmed. Based on this, a numerical analysis was then carried out to investigate the trends of boiling and capillary limitations of the micro channel wick structures. Effects of the channel geometries and arrangement were taken into account, including the aspect ratio and structure size of the micro channels. Furthermore, the effects of inclined angle and contact angle were also analyzed. The present results can provide a design reference of performance trends of micro channel wick structures.
Better performance due to repeated testing can bias long-term trajectories of cognitive aging and correlates of change. We examined whether retest effects differ as a function of individual differences pertinent to cognitive aging: race/ethnicity, age, sex, language, years of education, literacy, and dementia risk factors including apolipoprotein E ε4 status, baseline cognitive performance, and cardiovascular risk. We used data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a community-based cohort of older adults (n=4073). We modeled cognitive change and retest effects in summary factors for general cognitive performance, memory, executive functioning, and language using multilevel models. Retest effects were parameterized in two ways, as improvement between the first and subsequent testings, and as the square root of the number of prior testings. We evaluated whether the retest effect differed by individual characteristics. The mean retest effect for general cognitive performance was 0.60 standard deviations (95% confidence interval [0.46, 0.74]), and was similar for memory, executive functioning, and language. Retest effects were greater for participants in the lowest quartile of cognitive performance (many of whom met criteria for dementia based on a study algorithm), consistent with regression to the mean. Retest did not differ by other characteristics. Retest effects are large in this community-based sample, but do not vary by demographic or dementia-related characteristics. Differential retest effects may not limit the generalizability of inferences across different groups in longitudinal research. (JINS, 2015, 21, 506–518)