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The origin of malnutrition in older age is multifactorial and risk factors may vary according to health and living situation. The present study aimed to identify setting-specific risk profiles of malnutrition in older adults and to investigate the association of the number of individual risk factors with malnutrition.
Data of four cross-sectional studies were harmonized and uniformly analysed. Malnutrition was defined as BMI < 20 kg/m2 and/or weight loss of >3 kg in the previous 3–6 months. Associations between factors of six domains (demographics, health, mental function, physical function, dietary intake-related problems, dietary behaviour), the number of individual risk factors and malnutrition were analysed using logistic regression.
Community (CD), geriatric day hospital (GDH), home care (HC), nursing home (NH).
CD older adults (n 1073), GDH patients (n 180), HC receivers (n 335) and NH residents (n 197), all ≥65 years.
Malnutrition prevalence was lower in CD (11 %) than in the other settings (16–19 %). In the CD sample, poor appetite, difficulties with eating, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases were associated with malnutrition; in GDH patients, poor appetite and respiratory diseases; in HC receivers, younger age, poor appetite and nausea; and in NH residents, older age and mobility limitations. In all settings the likelihood of malnutrition increased with the number of potential individual risk factors.
The study indicates a varying relevance of certain risk factors of malnutrition in different settings. However, the relationship of the number of individual risk factors with malnutrition in all settings implies comprehensive approaches to identify persons at risk of malnutrition early.
In this work we have conducted a study on the radiative and spectroscopic properties of the radiative precursor and the post-shock region from experiments with radiative shocks in xenon performed at the Orion laser facility. The study is based on post-processing of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the experiment. In particular, we have analyzed the thermodynamic regime of the plasma, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, and the specific intensities for plasma conditions of both regions. The study of the intensities is a useful tool to estimate ranges of electron temperatures present in the xenon plasma in these experiments and the analysis performed of the microscopic properties commented above helps to better understand the intensity spectra. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the possibility of the onset of isobaric thermal instabilities in the post-shock has been made, concluding that the instabilities obtained in the radiative-hydrodynamic simulations could be thermal ones due to strong radiative cooling.
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a range of ‘gas cell’ microtargets produced by the Target Fabrication Group in the Central Laser Facility (CLF) for academic access experiments on the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The experiments were carried out by an academic consortium led by Imperial College London. The underlying target methodology was an evolution of a range of targets used for experiments on radiative shocks and involved the fabrication of a precision machined cell containing a number of apertures for interaction foils or diagnostic windows. The interior of the cell was gas-filled before laser irradiation. This paper details the assembly processes, thin film requirements and micro-machining processes needed to produce the targets. Also described is the implementation of a gas-fill system to produce targets that are filled to a pressure of 0.1–1 bar. The paper discusses the challenges that are posed by such a target.
We highlight the recent experimental results on laser-driven radiative shock waves of astrophysical interests using kJ PALS laser facility. The generated shock is probed instantaneously by X-ray laser (λ = 21.2 nm) showing an unambiguous shock structure that includes both the post-shock and the precursor.
The structure and dynamics of young stellar object (YSO) accretion shocks depend strongly on the local magnetic field strength and configuration, as well as on the radiative transfer effects responsible for the energy losses. We present the first 3D YSO shock simulations of the interior of the stream, assuming a uniform background magnetic field, a clumpy infalling gas, and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We study the dynamical evolution and the post-shock structure as a function of the plasma-beta (thermal pressure over magnetic pressure). We find that a strong magnetic field (~hundreds of Gauss) leads to the formation of fibrils in the shocked gas due to the plasma confinement within flux tubes. The corresponding emission is smooth and fully distinguishable from the case of a weak magnetic field (~tenths of Gauss) where the hot slab demonstrates chaotic motion and oscillates periodically.
Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated using concentration biomarkers. Biomarkers included were vitamin C, β-carotene, DHA+EPA, vitamin B12 (cobalamin and holo-transcobalamin) and folate (erythrocyte folate and plasma folate). For the evaluation of the food intake assessment 390 adolescents were included, while 697 were included for the nutrient intake assessment evaluation. Spearman rank and Pearson correlations, and validity coefficients, which are correlations between intake estimated and habitual true intake, were calculated. Correlations were higher between frequency of food consumption (from the FFQ) and concentration biomarkers than between mean food intake (from the recalls) and concentration biomarkers, especially for DHA+EPA (r 0·35 v. r 0·27). Most correlations were higher among girls than boys. For boys, the highest validity coefficients were found for frequency of fruit consumption (0·88) and for DHA+EPA biomarker (0·71). In girls, the highest validity coefficients were found for fruit consumption frequency (0·76), vegetable consumption frequency (0·74), mean fruit intake (0·90) and DHA+EPA biomarker (0·69). After exclusion of underreporters, correlations slightly improved. Correlations between usual food intakes, adjusted for food consumption frequency, and concentration biomarkers were higher than correlations between mean food intakes and concentration biomarkers. In conclusion, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls in combination with a FFQ seem to be appropriate to rank subjects according to their usual food intake.
Strongly radiative shocks are characterized by an ionization front induced by the shock
wave. The role played together by opacity and geometry is critical for the physics of
these shock waves. Moreover, radiation is an obvious way of probing these shock waves,
either by self-emission or by probe absorption. These aspects will be illustrated by
recent experimental results obtained at the iodine PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System)
Accretion flows on the surface of a star is modeled using a high resolution hydrodynamic
1D ALE code (ASTROLABE) coupled to radiative transfer and line cooling, along with a model
for the acoustic heating of the chromospheric plasma.
In order to improve the understanding of the physics of accretion shocks around young
stellar objects, we have performed a three dimensional simulation of a radiative shock
generated in a laser installation. We depict the 3D structure of such a shock. Radiation
hydrodynamics is modeled with the HERACLES code; then, radiative transfer post-processing
is performed with the IRIS code.
Advances in laser and Z-pinch technology, coupled with the development of plasma diagnostics, and the availability of high-performance computers, have recently stimulated the growth of high-energy density laboratory astrophysics. In particular, a number of experiments have been designed to study radiative shocks and jets with the aim of shedding new light on physical processes linked to the ejection and accretion of mass by newly born stars. Although general scaling laws are powerful tools to link laboratory experiments with astrophysical plasmas, the phenomena modeled are often too complicated for simple scaling to remain relevant. Nevertheless, the experiments can still give important insights into the physics of astrophysical systems and can be used to provide the basic experimental validation of numerical simulations in regimes of interest to astrophysics. We will illustrate the possible links between laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and astrophysics in the context of stellar jets. First we will discuss the propagation of stellar jets in a cross-moving interstellar medium and the scaling to Z-pinch produced jets. Our second example focuses on slab-jets produced at the Prague Asterix Laser System laser installation and their practical applications to astrophysics. Finally, we illustrate the limitations of scaling for radiative shocks, which are found at the head of the most rapid stellar jets.
In our commission the vice-president (VP) becomes the president, and a new VP is chosen from members of the Organizing Committee. The position of secretary was discontinued and its responsibilities incorporated into the VP position. The president announced that the new officers are Steven R. Federman (president) and Glenn M. Wahlgren (vice-president).
We present the current status-of-the-art in Stark broadening theory as
a theoretical basis for diagnostics of low temperature plasmas in gas
discharges, and of high temperature laser produced or z-pinch dense
plasmas. The diagnostics abilities vary depending on the parameters of the
gas discharges, or on the range of intensity, and duration of the laser or
z-pinch pulses. In the case of high temperature plasmas, besides the
conventional diagnostics based on the Stark broadening, the contemporary
possibilities of UV and XUV interferometry for plasma density measurements
and of tomography reconstruction of the macroscopic gradients of
temperature and densities in laser produced plasmas are discussed.
Recent progress in modeling type Ia supernovae by means of 3-dimensional
hydrodynamic simulations as well as several of the still open questions are
addressed. Our models are based on the assumption that thermonuclear burning
inside a Chandrasekhar-mass C+O white dwarf is similar to turbulent chemical
combustion and that, thus, thermonuclear supernovae can be modeled by means
of numerical methods which have been developed and tested for laboratory and
technical flames. It is shown that the new models have considerable
predictive power and allow to study observable properties of type Ia
supernovae, such as their light curves and spectra, without adjustable
non-physical parameters, and they make firm predictions for the
nucleosynthesis yields from the explosions. This raises a quest for better
data, covering the spectroscopical and photometric evolution in all wave
bands from very early epochs all the way into the nebular phase. First such
results obtained by the European Supernova Collaboration (ESC) for a sample
of nearby SNe Ia and their implications for constraining the models and
systematic differences between them are also discussed.
At present, new high-k dielectric materials are being intensively investigated to replace the silicon dioxide as gate dielectric for the next generation of electronic devices. Several candidate materials (such as ZrO2, HfO2, Al2O3) and deposition processes are currently under investigation. Because the layer thickness which is required in the next generations of devices is of the order of few nanometers, a precise determination and control of layer thickness will be mandatory. Although spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is well established non-contact, non-destructive and precise technique for determining thickness and optical properties of thin films, it becomes more difficult to obtain this information unambiguously and simultaneously for ultra-thin films with traditional SE alone because of possible high correlations between film structure and optical properties. The grazing x-ray reflectometry (XRR) is a complementary nondestructive optical technique and can be used to unambiguously determine ultra thin film thickness accurately. Combined with ellipsometry technique together, it will provide a promising way to characterize high-k gate dielectrics including thickness, roughness, interfacial layers and material composition information etc. In this paper, the principles for both SE and XRR will be briefly reviewed and limitation of each technique will be discussed. Following the high-k gate dielectric exploration and development, examples of using the combined SE/XRR techniques will be presented.
We propose to take benefit of optical aperture synthesis arrays to resolve
local magnetic structures and patchy stellar surfaces. This requires to be
able to polarimetrically resolve magnetic lines and thus to add a spectro-polarimetric
device at the combined focus of an interferometric array. Within this instrumental
context, it becomes possible to map magnetic fields thanks to fringe visibility and
phase measurements in circularly polarized light and to map abundance inhomogeneities
thanks to "classical" interferometric measurements (i.e. without the polarimeter).
This appears to be of great interest to better understand the key role of magnetism
in atmosphere structuration, in ion migration across the stellar surface, in chemical
stratification... In this talk we show how the interference fringe phase is the
suitable observable for polarimetric measurements and for mapping patchy surfaces.
We illustrate that on various typical cases of magnetic topology and abundance
distribution of Chemically Peculiar (CP) stars. Finally we give some instrumental
perspectives within the context of the optical interferometric arrays such as the VLTI.
In this article, we present a laboratory astrophysics experiment
on radiative shocks and its interpretation using simple modelization.
The experiment is performed with a 100-J laser (pulse duration of about
0.5 ns) which irradiates a 1-mm3 xenon gas-filled cell.
Descriptions of both the experiment and the associated diagnostics
are given. The apparition of a radiation precursor in the unshocked
material is evidenced from interferometry diagrams. A model
including self-similar solutions and numerical ones is derived
and fairly good agreements are obtained between the theoretical
and the experimental results.
Previous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies  of heterogeneous ethylene-hexene linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) copolymers have confirmed the existence of a dispersed minority phase (volume fraction φ ∼ 10−2) consisting of highly branched, amorphous material. However, these experiments were conducted via a pinhole SANS spectrometer with an upper resolution limit ∼ 103 Å, whereas microscopy indicates that the dimensions of the disperse phase extend to the μm-range. We have therefore complemented these investigations via a Bonse-Hart ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument which increases the instrumental resolution in reciprocal space by a factor - 100, and thus particle size up to 30 μm can be resolved. The sensitivity of the USANS camera has recently been increased by two orders of magnitude by using the modified channel cut crystals , and the performance is therefore comparable to the best x-ray Bonse-Hart cameras. Xylene extraction removes the highly branched molecules and hence the volume fraction of the disperse phase is higher (φ ∼ 0.3) in the extracted material.
We have proposed an extension of the Model Microfield Method to the case of ionic radiators. Special attention is given to the accurate treatment of plasma mixtures in terms of static and dynamic statistical properties of the plasma microfield. Line shapes of one electron Carbon and Argon illustrate the influence of ion dynamic effects.
Analysis of oxide interfaces with semi-conductor substrates, such as crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide, or indium phosphide is critical in processing and electrical performances. Interfaces can be characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), which has a wide spectral range (1.3 to 5.3 eV ) allowing an optical penetration depth of 10 nm to a few microns.
A multilayer stack can be characterized in terms of its layer thicknesses and composition. These physical parameters must be calculated through a mathematical model. Linear regression analysis is used to minimize the differences between the measured spectrum and the calculated model. If necessary, an interlayer can be introduced into the model to enhance the fit. This can be complemented by a new method involving calculation of apparent index values which amplifies interface sensivity allowing the thickness to be measured to better than 2 Angstroms. Examples will be given.
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