To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Studies show that bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed. One reason for misdiagnosis may be that psychiatrists do not rely strictly on ICD or DSM criteria but consider some symptoms, e.g., „decreased need for sleep”, as more critical than others. Another reason could be that the diagnosis of bipolar disorder is associated with the total number of reported symptoms.
Firstly, we investigate if an individual is more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder if he/she reports a „decreased need for sleep”. Secondly, we explore if a high number of reported relevant symptoms increases the likelihood of a bipolar diagnosis.
Five case vignettes that varied in respect to the relevant information were sent to 400 randomly selected Austrian psychiatrists. The vignettes contained all information that is required to diagnose a bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 or DSM-IV. The psychiatrists were asked to return a questionnaire that collected data on their diagnostic decision making.
Surface and bulk interactions between a metal M (M = Au, Cu or Ni) and monocrystalline α-SiC are studied. Surface interactions are quantified by the work of adhesion measured by the sessile drop technique under high vacuum. Products of M-SiC bulk reactions are characterised by electron microscopy and microprobe analysis. Interpretation of experimental results is based on classical thermodynamics for equilibria of bulk phases and on interfacial thermodynamics for adsorption phenomena and wetting.
(i) J. Baumgartner has kindly drawn our attention to the fact that Theorem 2 as stated in (1) is false. A counter example is the case in which m = ℵ2; n = ℵ1; p = ℵ0. For by reference (3) of the paper (1) there is an almost disjoint family (Aγ: γ < ω1) of infinite subsets of ω̲ Put Aν = ω̲ for ω1 ≤ ν < ω2. Then, contrary to the assertion of that theorem, all conditions of Theorem 2 are satisfied. However, Theorem 2 becomes correct if the hypothesis
is strengthened to
In fact, Baumgartner has proved the desired conclusion under the weaker hypothesis
For a given index set I, let us consider a family (Aν,: ν ∈ I) of subsets of a set E. In this note we deal with some aspects of the following question: to what extent is it possible to prescribe the cardinalities, or the order types in case E is ordered, of the sets Aν and of their pairwise intersections? In (1) the authors have shown that, given any regular cardinal a, there is a family of a+ sets of cardinal a whose pairwise intersections are arbitrarily prescribed to be either less than or equal to a. In Theorem 1 below we prove a stronger result which states that if a is regular, say a = ℵα, and if E is well-ordered and of order type , then one can find a+ subsets Aν, of E, each of type , whose pairwise intersections are arbitrarily prescribed to be either of type ωα or of a type less than ωα. By way of contrast, Theorem 2 below implies – this is its special case m = ℵω; n = ℵ2; p = ℵ0 – that, assuming the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis (GCH), there do not exist ℵω+1 sets Aν, each of cardinal at most ℵω such that ℵ2 of them have pairwise finite intersections, whereas all other pairs of sets Aν have a denumerable intersection. Theorem 3 gives another case in which some type of prescription of the sizes of the intersections cannot be satisfied. Finally, Theorem 4 asserts that in Theorem 3 the condition cfp ≠ cfm cannot be omitted. The paper concludes with some remarks on open questions.
A system or family (Aγ: γ∈ N) of sets Aγ, indexed by the elements of a set N, is called an (a, b)-system if ¦N¦ = a and ¦Aγ¦ = b for γ ∈ N. Expressions such as “(a, <b)-system” are self-explanatory. The system (Aγ: γ∈N) is called a δ-system  if Aμ∩Aγ = Ap ∩ Aσ whenever μ, γ, ρ, σ ∈ N; μ≠ γ; ρ ≠ σ. If we want to indicate the cardinality ¦N¦ of the index set N then we speak of a δ(¦N¦) system. In  conditions on cardinals a, b, c were obtained which imply that every (a, b)-system contains a δ(c)-subsystem. In , for every choice of cardinals b, c such that the least cardinal a = fδ(b, c) was determined which has the property that every (a, < b)-system contains a δ(c)-subsystem.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.