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Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are lung-resident myeloid cells that sit at the interface of the airway and lung tissue. Under homeostatic conditions, their primary function is to clear debris, dead cells and excess surfactant from the airways. They also serve as innate pulmonary sentinels for respiratory pathogens and environmental airborne particles and as regulators of pulmonary inflammation. However, they have not typically been viewed as primary therapeutic targets for respiratory diseases. Here, we discuss the role of AMs in various lung diseases, explore the potential therapeutic strategies to target these innate cells and weigh the potential risks and challenges of such therapies. Additionally, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we examine the role AMs play in severe disease and the therapeutic strategies that have been harnessed to modulate their function and protect against severe lung damage. There are many novel approaches in development to target AMs, such as inhaled antibiotics, liposomal and microparticle delivery systems, and host-directed therapies, which have the potential to provide critical treatment to patients suffering from severe respiratory diseases, yet there is still much work to be done to fully understand the possible benefits and risks of such approaches.
Later Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites and brachiopods spanning eight horizons from five localities within the Sông Mã, Hàm Rồng and Đông Sơn formations of the Thanh Hóa province of Việt Nam, constrain the age and faunal affinities of rocks within the Sông Đà terrane, one of several suture/fault-bounded units situated between South China to the north and Indochina to the south. ‘Ghost-like’ preservation in dolomite coupled with tectonic deformation leaves many of the fossils poorly preserved, and poor exposure precludes collecting within continuously exposed stratigraphic successions. Cambrian carbonate facies pass conformably into Lower Ordovician carbonate-rich strata that also include minor siliciclastic facies, and the recovered fauna spans several uppermost Cambrian and Lower Ordovician biozones. The fauna is of equatorial Gondwanan affinity, and comparable to that from South China, North China, Sibumasu and Australia. A new species of Miaolingian ‘ptychopariid’ trilobite, Kaotaia xuanensis, is described. Detrital zircon samples from Cambrian–Ordovician rocks of the North Việt Nam and Sông Đà terranes, and from Palaeozoic samples from the Trường Sơn sector of Indochina immediately to the south, contain a predominance of ages spanning the Neoproterozoic period and have a typical equatorial Gondwanan signature. We associate the Cambrian and Tremadocian of the Sông Đà terrane with areas immediately to the north of it, including the North Việt Nam terrane and the southern parts of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is commonly diagnosed during adolescence and is associated with psychological stress reactivity and heightened physiological arousal. No study, however, has systematically examined which aspects of autonomic nervous system function mediate likely links between stress sensitivity and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Here, we assessed 163 adolescents (90 females; 12.29 ± 1.39 years) with respect to life stress and social anxiety symptoms, and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and skin conductance levels (SCL) during a psychosocial stress paradigm. We operationalized stress sensitivity as the residual variance in subjective stress severity after accounting for objective severity and changes in autonomic regulation using standardized change scores in RSA and SCL. In females only, stress sensitivity and social anxiety symptoms were significantly correlated with each other (p < .001) and with autonomic regulation during both reactivity and recovery (all ps < 0.04). Further, sympathetic nervous system dominance during recovery specifically mediated associations between stress sensitivity and social anxiety symptoms (B = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.02–2.64). In contrast, in males, stress sensitivity, autonomic regulation during reactivity or recovery, and social anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated (all ps > 0.1). We interpret these results in the context of psychobiological models of SAD and discuss implications for interventions targeting autonomic processes.
Introduction: Determining fluid status prior to resuscitation provides a more accurate guide for appropriate fluid administration in the setting of undifferentiated hypotension. Emergency Department (ED) point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been proposed as a potential non-invasive, rapid, repeatable investigation to ascertain inferior vena cava (IVC) characteristics. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using PoCUS to measure IVC size and collapsibility. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre international study investigating PoCUS in ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension. We prospectively collected data on IVC size and collapsibility using a standard data collection form in 6 centres. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a clinically useful (determinate) scan defined as a clearly visible intrahepatic IVC, measurable for size and collapse. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: A total of 138 scans were attempted on 138 patients; 45.7% were women and the median age was 58 years old. Overall, one hundred twenty-nine scans (93.5%; 95% CI 87.9 to 96.7%) were determinate. 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for IVC size, and 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for collapsibility. Conclusion: In this analysis of 138 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension, the vast majority of PoCUS scans to investigate IVC characteristics were determinate. Future work should include analysis of the value of IVC size and collapsibility in determining fluid status in this group.
Introduction: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with hypotension have a high mortality rate and require careful yet rapid resuscitation. The use of cardiac point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) in the ED has progressed beyond the basic indications of detecting pericardial fluid and activity in cardiac arrest. We examine if finding left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) on emergency physician performed PoCUS reliably predicts the presence of cardiogenic shock in hypotensive ED patients. Methods: We prospectively collected PoCUS findings performed in 135 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension as part of an international study. Patients with clearly identified etiologies for hypotension were excluded, along with other specific presumptive diagnoses. LVD was defined as identification of a generally hypodynamic LV in the setting of shock. PoCUS findings were collected using a standardized protocol and data collection form. All scans were performed by PoCUS-trained emergency physicians. Final shock type was defined as cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic by independent specialist blinded chart review. Results: All 135 patients had complete follow up. Median age was 56 years, 53% of patients were male. Disease prevalence for cardiogenic shock was 12% and the mortality rate was 24%. The presence of LVD on PoCUS had a sensitivity of 62.50% (95%CI 35.43% to 84.80%), specificity of 94.12% (88.26% to 97.60%), positive-LR 10.62 (4.71 to 23.95), negative-LR 0.40 (0.21 to 0.75) and accuracy of 90.37% (84.10% to 94.77%) for detecting cardiogenic shock. Conclusion: Detecting left ventricular dysfunction on PoCUS in the ED may be useful in confirming the underlying shock type as cardiogenic in otherwise undifferentiated hypotensive patients.
The abnormal connectivity between brain regions has been proposed to account for the physiopathology of psychoses. But which brains regions or which specific links could play the more important role for psychosis to emerge? This study looked at long range functional connectivity in a large sample of schizophrenic patients during resting state.
Forty-two patients with DSM-IV defined schizophrenia were recruited and compared to 57 controls. Participants took part to a 20 min resting state fMRI scan keeping eyes closed but remaining awake. The signal from the 78 Brodman areas was averaged between which a correlation coefficient was computed as the metric for functional connectivity. Patients and controls were compared using permutation test correcting for multiple testing.
The differences can be better described in terms of hub regions that are more disconnected with others than by specific links. The internal temporal, the temporal pole, the inferior temporal and the anterior cingulate regions were the most disconnected. The sensori-motor frontal and parietal regions were less clearly implicated and were correlated with chlorpromazine equivalent dose. There were no inter-hemispheric difference.
The temporal pole was the most differently connected between the two groups. This region is poorly know as there is no equivalent in the other primates. The internal temporal areas (essentially the enthorhinal cortex) were also much concerned in accordance with the limbic hypothesis of psychosis. Surprisingly the prefrontal regions were not involved probably because of the absence of a outward directed cognitive task.
L’hospitalisation à domicile (HAD) est une alternative à l’hospitalisation à temps complet classique, dans laquelle des soins intensifs sont effectués au domicile du patient. La circulaire DHOS du 4 février 2004 a, plus particulièrement, défini les modalités de l’HAD en psychiatrie : « elle prépare, raccourcit, prend le relais, évite ou remplace l’hospitalisation classique ». Il est important que l’HAD s’intègre dans l’organisation des soins psychiatriques et du secteur déjà existant. Elle renforce la diversité de l’offre de soin, facilite souvent l’accès au suivi psychiatrique et la continuité du parcours de soins. Les structures d’HAD sont disséminées sur l’ensemble du territoire français et leur nombre s’accroît régulièrement sans que puissent se coordonner les différentes équipes de psychiatrie porteuses de ce projet. En effet, à ce jour, il est difficile de trouver des données centralisées concernant les différents services d’HAD psychiatriques en France. Cette communication présente les résultats d’une enquête téléphonique réalisée en 2015 à partir du service d’HAD psychiatrique du centre hospitalier de Montauban (82). Il présente la répartition et la localisation des services d’HAD psychiatrique en France en 2015. Ce recensement a pour but de donner ainsi une vision simple et globale de l’implantation des structures d’hospitalisation à domicile en psychiatrie, avec le projet ultérieur de faciliter les échanges des pratiques dans ce domaine et peut-être de proposer une coordination nationale.
L’exercice de la psychiatrie n’est pas un exercice médical instrumental mais repose pour une grande part sur l’action directe des soignants. De ce fait, son enseignement ne peut pas être exclusivement théorique mais doit également reposer sur l’expérience vécue. Celle-ci peut reposer sur la simulation médicale permet de se forger une expérience clinique sans mettre en danger de patient. Elle est par exemple employée pour l’enseignement de la réanimation cardiovasculaire ou encore en gynécologie-obstétrique. La Haute Autorité de santé recommande l’emploi de la simulation médicale pour l’enseignement de toutes les disciplines cliniques, psychiatrie inclue. Mais, si la littérature retrouve un usage de cette technique dans différents pays, le rapport Granry et Moll a récemment souligné qu’elle était encore peu employée dans l’enseignement psychiatrique en France. Nous nous sommes interrogés sur la pertinence et l’usage de ce type d’outil dans l’enseignement de la technique d’entretien psychiatrique. Nous proposons de décrire une expérience d’enseignement par simulation ayant eu lieu de 2012 à 2014 au centre universitaire d’enseignement par simulation médicale à Nancy. Cette expérience était destinée à un public d’internes en psychiatrie et portait sur une situation clinique d’urgence. L’objectif principal était de valider l’intérêt de l’enseignement par simulation pour les techniques d’entretien psychiatrique. Nous avons également évalué la pertinence d’outils de mesure de l’efficacité de l’investigation. Cette expérience a mis en avant l’intérêt majeur des étudiants en psychiatrie pour ce type d’enseignement. Elle a également permis de valider un outil d’évaluation de l’efficacité de l’investigation objectif et pertinent. Si l’enseignement par simulation montre son intérêt, il requiert des conditions matérielles très spécifiques que nous discutons ici. Par ailleurs, il s’applique prioritairement à certaines compétences ciblées. Sur la base de cette expérience, un programme structuré d’enseignement par simulation a été développé pour le début d’internat à Nancy.
Deregulations of peripheral control of food intake in anorexia nervosa (AN), hunger signals (Ghrelin & obestatin) and satiety signals (leptin & insulin), have been reported. However, these differences could be a consequence or a risk factor of the disease. The genetic approach seems to be a good strategy to analyse this issue. Indeed, AN has a high heritability of ~50-80%.
The aims of this study are to confirm deregulation of hunger and satiety signals in AN and to analyze these results according to genetic polymorphisms. Furthermore, we search for an endophenotype by the screening of the AN mothers.
This work recruited 3 populations: 100 anorexic patients recruited at CMME (Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris), their mothers, and 200 control women, matched with the patients or relatives for age. All subjects were assessed during a morning day at CMME. They arrived at 8:30am, fasting since the day before, to take a blood sample, in order to carry out genetic and physiologic analyses. Then, they were analysed for Body Mass Index and eating behaviors, including a psychiatric interview (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and self-questionnaires. Dosage of ghrelin, obestatin, and leptin were done by EIA or RIA. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by Taqman assay.
We have confirmed that peripheral control mechanism of food intake is deregulated in AN patients and we observe difference also between mothers and controls.
Leptin dosage might be an endophenotype for anorexia nervosa.
Introduction: Although use of point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) protocols for patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the Emergency Department (ED) is widespread, our previously reported SHoC-ED study showed no clear survival or length of stay benefit for patients assessed with PoCUS. In this analysis, we examine if the use of PoCUS changed fluid administration and rates of other emergency interventions between patients with different shock types. The primary comparison was between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic shock types. Methods: A post-hoc analysis was completed on the database from an RCT of 273 patients who presented to the ED with undifferentiated hypotension (SBP <100 or shock index > 1) and who had been randomized to receive standard care with or without PoCUS in 6 centres in Canada and South Africa. PoCUS-trained physicians performed scans after initial assessment. Shock categories and diagnoses recorded at 60 minutes after ED presentation, were used to allocate patients into subcategories of shock for analysis of treatment. We analyzed actual care delivered including initial IV fluid bolus volumes (mL), rates of inotrope use and major procedures. Standard statistical tests were employed. Sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate difference. Results: Although there were expected differences in the mean fluid bolus volume between patients with non-cardiogenic and cardiogenic shock, there was no difference in fluid bolus volume between the control and PoCUS groups (non-cardiogenic control 1878 mL (95% CI 1550 – 2206 mL) vs. non-cardiogenic PoCUS 1687 mL (1458 – 1916 mL); and cardiogenic control 768 mL (194 – 1341 mL) vs. cardiogenic PoCUS 981 mL (341 – 1620 mL). Likewise there were no differences in rates of inotrope administration, or major procedures for any of the subcategories of shock between the control group and PoCUS group patients. The most common subcategory of shock was distributive. Conclusion: Despite differences in care delivered by subcategory of shock, we did not find any significant difference in actual care delivered between patients who were examined using PoCUS and those who were not. This may help to explain the previously reported lack of outcome difference between groups.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound has been reported to improve diagnosis in non-traumatic hypotensive ED patients. We compared diagnostic performance of physicians with and without PoCUS in undifferentiated hypotensive patients as part of an international prospective randomized controlled study. The primary outcome was diagnostic performance of PoCUS for cardiogenic vs. non-cardiogenic shock. Methods: SHoC-ED recruited hypotensive patients (SBP < 100 mmHg or shock index > 1) in 6 centres in Canada and South Africa. We describe previously unreported secondary outcomes relating to diagnostic accuracy. Patients were randomized to standard clinical assessment (No PoCUS) or PoCUS groups. PoCUS-trained physicians performed scans after initial assessment. Demographics, clinical details and findings were collected prospectively. Initial and secondary diagnoses including shock category were recorded at 0 and 60 minutes. Final diagnosis was determined by independent blinded chart review. Standard statistical tests were employed. Sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate difference. Results: 273 patients were enrolled with follow-up for primary outcome completed for 270. Baseline demographics and perceived category of shock were similar between groups. 11% of patients were determined to have cardiogenic shock. PoCUS had a sensitivity of 80.0% (95% CI 54.8 to 93.0%), specificity 95.5% (90.0 to 98.1%), LR+ve 17.9 (7.34 to 43.8), LR-ve 0.21 (0.08 to 0.58), Diagnostic OR 85.6 (18.2 to 403.6) and accuracy 93.7% (88.0 to 97.2%) for cardiogenic shock. Standard assessment without PoCUS had a sensitivity of 91.7% (64.6 to 98.5%), specificity 93.8% (87.8 to 97.0%), LR+ve 14.8 (7.1 to 30.9), LR- of 0.09 (0.01 to 0.58), Diagnostic OR 166.6 (18.7 to 1481) and accuracy of 93.6% (87.8 to 97.2%). There was no significant difference in sensitivity (-11.7% (-37.8 to 18.3%)) or specificity (1.73% (-4.67 to 8.29%)). Diagnostic performance was also similar between other shock subcategories. Conclusion: As reported in other studies, PoCUS based assessment performed well diagnostically in undifferentiated hypotensive patients, especially as a rule-in test. However performance was similar to standard (non-PoCUS) assessment, which was excellent in this study.
Introduction: As the value of interactive teaching becomes increasingly recognized, the Flipped Classroom model is receiving more attention in the medical education community. In this model, learners master core declarative knowledge through self-learning prior to class and then expand upon this learning with integrative class exercises. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the new Flipped Classroom in a Canadian Emergency Medicine postgraduate program. Methods: The residents and staff were educated on the new model. An online questionnaire was sent to all EM residents and staff who had participated in the program 9 months after implementation. The survey tool assessed the participants opinions on utility, time-management, effectiveness in learning material, sustainability, collaboration with other members and overall impressions. Resident scores on national preparatory examinations including the Canadian In-Training Examination (CITE) and the American Board of Emergency medicine (ABEM) were compared before and after implementation of the new model. Results: Teaching staff were trained in the Flipped Classroom model and the majority of teaching sessions for the 2016 academic year were carried out using this paradigm. In addition, third year postgraduates received intensive training in the theory and implementation of interactive teaching techniques. A curriculum renewal committee generated objectives for each teaching session and suggested materials for learner pre-reading. Conclusion: Overall, both residents and staff physicians indicated that the flipped classroom model is a better format for EM academic day learning. Residents and staff collaborated more and felt more engaged during academic day. Residents spent more time preparing for the sessions with the new model, while staff spent less time preparing. Paired comparisons of same residency years for test exam scores using Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed an improvement in both CITE and ABEM exam test scores. In conclusion, the new flipped classroom model produced improvements in educational experience, satisfaction, and test examination scores.
Introduction: Research supports the role of mentors in the personal development and career advancement of medical trainees. Compared to non-mentored peers, mentored residents are nearly twice as likely to describe excellent career preparation and demonstrate objective career success. In prior research, only 65% of training programs in Canada had a mentorship program, and 40% indicated a need for more formal mentorship models. Methods: A needs assessment survey was distributed to RCPSC Emergency Medicine (EM) Program Directors across Canada regarding mentorship available to resident physicians training at their centers. Additionally, all EM resident and staff physicians involved in mentorship were surveyed on their perceptions of current models at their institutions. Both surveys were comprised of binary, open ended, and 5 point likert scale questions. Responses were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: Eleven Program Directors responded to the survey. Formal mentorship programs were found in 82% of training centers, with 77% of programs instituted within the past 5 years. Half of resident/mentor pairings were based on a combination of identified career goals, participant personality traits, or resident request. Other pairing methods included perceived resident needs or attending physician request. Most meetings are face-to-face, with one program requiring mutual scheduled shifts. Residents identified that mentorship was significantly associated with benefits to career (p=0.0016) and niche (p=0.0019) development. Formal mentorship was felt to have a significant association with resident academic development (p=0.05) and lower rates of burnout (p=0.0018) by staff physicians. Staff mentors also associated a personal development benefit related to involvement in a mentorship relationship (p=0.0355). Conclusion: The majority of EM programs have adopted formal mentorship programs within the past 5 years. Residents and staff identify that mentorship relationships are associated with improved career and niche development as well as academic advancement. Future research will include a before and after study of the implementation of a formal mentorship program within the RCPSC-EM program at the University of Manitoba.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department (ED). Current established protocols (e.g. RUSH and ACES) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. Recently the SHoC Protocol was published, recommending 3 core scans; cardiac, lung, and IVC; plus other scans when indicated clinically. We report the abnormal ultrasound findings from our international multicenter randomized controlled trial, to assess if the recommended 3 core SHoC protocol scans were chosen appropriately for this population. Methods: Recruitment occurred at seven centres in North America (4) and South Africa (3). Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 or shock index>1) who were randomized to PoCUS or control (standard care with no PoCUS) groups. All scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians within one hour of arrival in the ED. Demographics, clinical details and study findings were collected prospectively. A threshold incidence for positive findings of 10% was established as significant for the purposes of assessing the appropriateness of the core recommendations. Results: 138 patients had a PoCUS screen completed. All patients had cardiac, lung, IVC, aorta, abdominal, and pelvic scans. Reported abnormal findings included hyperdynamic LV function (59; 43%); small collapsing IVC (46; 33%); pericardial effusion (24; 17%); pleural fluid (19; 14%); hypodynamic LV function (15; 11%); large poorly collapsing IVC (13; 9%); peritoneal fluid (13; 9%); and aortic aneurysm (5; 4%). Conclusion: The 3 core SHoC Protocol recommendations included appropriate scans to detect all pathologies recorded at a rate of greater than 10 percent. The 3 most frequent findings were cardiac and IVC abnormalities, followed by lung. It is noted that peritoneal fluid was seen at a rate of 9%. Aortic aneurysms were rare. This data from the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients, supports the use of the prioritized SHoC protocol, though a larger study is required to confirm these findings.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) is an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department (ED). While PoCUS protocols have been shown to improve early diagnostic accuracy, there is little published evidence for any mortality benefit. We report the findings from our international multicenter randomized controlled trial, assessing the impact of a PoCUS protocol on survival and key clinical outcomes. Methods: Recruitment occurred at 7 centres in North America (4) and South Africa (3). Scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians. Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 or shock index>1), randomized to PoCUS or control (standard care and no PoCUS) groups. Demographics, clinical details and study findings were collected prospectively. Initial and secondary diagnoses were recorded at 0 and 60 minutes, with ultrasound performed in the PoCUS group prior to secondary assessment. The primary outcome measure was 30-day/discharge mortality. Secondary outcome measures included diagnostic accuracy, changes in vital signs, acid-base status, and length of stay. Categorical data was analyzed using Fishers test, and continuous data by Student T test and multi-level log-regression testing. (GraphPad/SPSS) Final chart review was blinded to initial impressions and PoCUS findings. Results: 258 patients were enrolled with follow-up fully completed. Baseline comparisons confirmed effective randomization. There was no difference between groups for the primary outcome of mortality; PoCUS 32/129 (24.8%; 95% CI 14.3-35.3%) vs. Control 32/129 (24.8%; 95% CI 14.3-35.3%); RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.869 to 1.15; p=1.00). There were no differences in the secondary outcomes; ICU and total length of stay. Our sample size has a power of 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate effect size. Other secondary outcomes are reported separately. Conclusion: This is the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients. We did not find any mortality or length of stay benefits with the use of a PoCUS protocol, though a larger study is required to confirm these findings. While PoCUS may have diagnostic benefits, these may not translate into a survival benefit effect.
Introduction: Point of Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) protocols are commonly used to guide resuscitation for emergency department (ED) patients with undifferentiated non-traumatic hypotension. While PoCUS has been shown to improve early diagnosis, there is a minimal evidence for any outcome benefit. We completed an international multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the impact of a PoCUS protocol on key resuscitation markers in this group. We report diagnostic impact and mortality elsewhere. Methods: The SHoC-ED1 study compared the addition of PoCUS to standard care within the first hour in the treatment of adult patients presenting with undifferentiated hypotension (SBP<100 mmHg or a Shock Index >1.0) with a control group that did not receive PoCUS. Scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians. 4 North American, and 3 South African sites participated in the study. Resuscitation outcomes analyzed included volume of fluid administered in the ED, changes in shock index (SI), modified early warning score (MEWS), venous acid-base balance, and lactate, at one and four hours. Comparisons utilized a T-test as well as stratified binomial log-regression to assess for any significant improvement in resuscitation amount the outcomes. Our sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate effect size. Results: 258 patients were enrolled with follow-up fully completed. Baseline comparisons confirmed effective randomization. There was no significant difference in mean total volume of fluid received between the control (1658 ml; 95%CI 1365-1950) and PoCUS groups (1609 ml; 1385-1832; p=0.79). Significant improvements were seen in SI, MEWS, lactate and bicarbonate with resuscitation in both the PoCUS and control groups, however there was no difference between groups. Conclusion: SHOC-ED1 is the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard of care in hypotensive ED patients. No significant difference in fluid used, or markers of resuscitation was found when comparing the use of a PoCUS protocol to that of standard of care in the resuscitation of patients with undifferentiated hypotension.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasonography (PoCUS) is an established tool in the initial management of hypotensive patients in the emergency department (ED). It has been shown rule out certain shock etiologies, and improve diagnostic certainty, however evidence on benefit in the management of hypotensive patients is limited. We report the findings from our international multicenter RCT assessing the impact of a PoCUS protocol on diagnostic accuracy, as well as other key outcomes including mortality, which are reported elsewhere. Methods: Recruitment occurred at 4 North American and 3 Southern African sites. Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 mmHg or shock index >1) who were randomized to either PoCUS or control groups. Scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians. Demographics, clinical details and findings were collected prospectively. Initial and secondary diagnoses were recorded at 0 and 60 minutes, with ultrasound performed in the PoCUS group prior to secondary assessment. Final chart review was blinded to initial impressions and PoCUS findings. Categorical data was analyzed using Fishers two-tailed test. Our sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate effect size. Results: 258 patients were enrolled with follow-up fully completed. Baseline comparisons confirmed effective randomization. The perceived shock category changed more frequently in the PoCUS group 20/127 (15.7%) vs. control 7/125 (5.6%); RR 2.81 (95% CI 1.23 to 6.42; p=0.0134). There was no significant difference in change of diagnostic impression between groups PoCUS 39/123 (31.7%) vs control 34/124 (27.4%); RR 1.16 (95% CI 0.786 to 1.70; p=0.4879). There was no significant difference in the rate of correct category of shock between PoCUS (118/127; 93%) and control (113/122; 93%); RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.936 to 1.08; p=1.00), or for correct diagnosis; PoCUS 90/127 (70%) vs control 86/122 (70%); RR 0.987 (95% CI 0.671 to 1.45; p=1.00). Conclusion: This is the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients. We found that the use of PoCUS did change physicians’ perceived shock category. PoCUS did not improve diagnostic accuracy for category of shock or diagnosis.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Current established protocols (RUSH, ACES, etc) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. We wished to use reported disease incidence to develop an informed approach to PoCUS in hypotension using a “4 F’s” approach: Fluid; Form; Function; Filling. Methods: We summarized the incidence of PoCUS findings from an international multicentre RCT, and using a modified Delphi approach incorporating this data we obtained the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. The modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate PoCUS for hypotensive emergency department patients. Results: Rates of abnormal PoCUS findings from 151 patients with undifferentiated hypotension included left ventricular dynamic changes (43%), IVC abnormalities (27%), pericardial effusion (16%), and pleural fluid (8%). Abdominal pathology was rare (fluid 5%, AAA 2%). After two rounds of the survey, using majority consensus, agreement was reached on a SHoC-hypotension protocol comprising: A. Core: 1. Cardiac views (Sub-xiphoid and parasternal windows for pericardial fluid, cardiac form and ventricular function); 2. Lung views for pleural fluid and B-lines for filling status; and 3. IVC views for filling status; B. Supplementary: Additional cardiac views; and C. Additional views (when indicated) including peritoneal fluid, aorta, pelvic for IUP, and proximal leg veins for DVT. Conclusion: An international consensus process based on prospectively collected disease incidence has led to a proposed SHoC-hypotension PoCUS protocol comprising a stepwise clinical-indication based approach of Core, Supplementary and Additional PoCUS views.
Introduction / Innovation Concept: Expanding point of care ultrasound education in emergency medicine (EM) programs is a necessary part of curriculum development. Our objective was to integrate core and advanced applications for point of care ultrasound in caring for critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock. We chose to develop and implement an educational module using the systematic approach of the RUSH Exam for EM residents in our institution. Methods: After review of the literature in point-of-care ultrasound, a module was designed. An educational proposal outlining the RUSH Exam training within the -EM and CCFP-EM curricula was submitted to and accepted by the residency training committee. The objectives and goals were outlined in accordance with CanMEDS roles, and the ultrasound director provided supervision for the project. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: An 8-hour educational module was implemented between October 7 and November 18, 2014. All residents received formal training on the core applications in FAST and aortic scans prior to implementation. The following components of the RUSH Exam were included: two hours of didactic teaching with video clips on advanced cardiac, IVC, DVT, and pulmonary assessment; three hours of hands-on practice on standardized patients performed in the simulation lab to practice image acquisition and interpretation; one hour of didactic teaching on the overall approach to a patient with undifferentiated shock using the RUSH Exam; and two hours of hands-on RUSH Exam practice. A corresponding research project integrating a SonoSim Livescan training platform, a simulation-based testing device, demonstrated improvement in resident performance, subjective comfort with imaging patients in shock and making clinical decisions based on the findings. Conclusion: This 8-hour RUSH Exam educational module combined theoretical learning and hands-on practice for trainees. This module significantly broadened the scope of ultrasound training in our curriculum by providing the necessary skills in approaching patients in shock in a systematic fashion. Future direction will include ongoing education in this area and expansion as appropriate.